Key Factors Influencing the Energy Absorption of Dual-Phase Steels: Multiscale Material Model Approach and Microstructural Optimization
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The increase in use of dual-phase (DP) steel grades by vehicle manufacturers to enhance crash resistance and reduce body car weight requires the development of a clear understanding of the effect of various microstructural parameters on the energy absorption in these materials. Accordingly, DP steelmakers are interested in predicting the effect of various microscopic factors as well as optimizing microstructural properties for application in crash-relevant components of vehicle bodies. This study presents a microstructure-based approach using a multiscale material and structure model. In this approach, Digimat and LS-DYNA software were coupled and employed to provide a full micro–macro multiscale material model, which is then used to simulate tensile tests. Microstructures with varied ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, and carbon content in DP steels were studied. The impact of these microstructural features at different strain rates on energy absorption characteristics of DP steels is investigated numerically using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. The model is implemented in a multiscale finite-element framework. A comprehensive statistical parametric study using response surface methodology is performed to determine the optimum microstructural features for a required tensile toughness at different strain rates. The simulation results are validated using experimental data found in the literature. The developed methodology proved to be effective for investigating the influence and interaction of key microscopic properties on the energy absorption characteristics of DP steels. Furthermore, it is shown that this method can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions at different strain-rate conditions.
One of the authors (HZ) gratefully acknowledges the support provided by the National Science Foundation’s CMMI Program under Grant No. 1434879. TB wishes to acknowledge the assistance and support of the Libyan Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and Mrs. Cassandra Radigan, Educational Program Manager, MSC Software Company. TB also thanks Mr. Pierre-Yves Lavertu, Application Engineer, e-Xstream Engineering, MSC Software Company, for his technical assistance.
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