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Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 1641–1652 | Cite as

Linear Friction Welding of Dissimilar Materials 316L Stainless Steel to Zircaloy-4

  • P. Wanjara
  • B. S. Naik
  • Q. Yang
  • X. Cao
  • J. Gholipour
  • D. L. Chen
Article
  • 187 Downloads

Abstract

In the nuclear industry, there are a number of applications where the transition of stainless steel to Zircaloy is of technological importance. However, due to the differences in their properties there are considerable challenges associated with developing a joining process that will sufficiently limit the heat input and welding time—so as to minimize the extent of interaction at the joint interface and the resulting formation of intermetallic compounds—but still render a functional metallurgical bond between these two alloys. As such, linear friction welding, a solid-state joining technology, was selected in the present study to assess the feasibility of welding 316L stainless steel to Zircaloy-4. The dissimilar alloy welds were examined to evaluate their microstructural characteristics, microhardness evolution across the joint interface, static tensile properties, and fatigue behavior. Microstructural observations revealed a central intermixed region and, on the Zircaloy-4 side, dynamically recrystallized and thermomechanically affected zones were present. By contrast, deformation on the 316L stainless steel side was limited. In the intermixed region a drastic change in the composition was observed along with a local increase in hardness, which was attributed to the presence of intermetallic compounds, such as FeZr3 and Cr2Zr. The average yield (316 MPa) and ultimate tensile (421 MPa) strengths met the minimum strength properties of Zircaloy-4, but the elongation was relatively low (~ 2 pct). The tensile and fatigue fracture of the welds always occurred at the interface in the mode of partial cohesive failure.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Advanced Manufacturing Program of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). Further, the authors are grateful for the assistance of M. Guerin and X. Pelletier of NRC for preparing the linear friction welds, supporting the infrared thermal imaging data acquisition during welding, preparing the samples for metallography, and machining of the tensile and fatigue samples. The authors would also like to thank A. Machin, Q. Li, C. Ma, J. Amankrah, and R. Churaman for easy access to the laboratory facilities of Ryerson University and their assistance in the experiments.

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Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the NRC Canada 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Wanjara
    • 1
  • B. S. Naik
    • 2
  • Q. Yang
    • 1
  • X. Cao
    • 1
  • J. Gholipour
    • 1
  • D. L. Chen
    • 2
  1. 1.National Research Council Canada - AerospaceMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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