Skip to main content

Mn-Depleted Zone Formation in Rapidly Cooled High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Welds


The mechanism of formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion in a steel weld was elucidated based on quantification of MDZ depth and thermodynamic calculations. The effective inclusion phase for intragranular nucleation, which increased as a function of increasing chemical driving force, satisfied the requirements for presence of a considerable quantity of Mn in the phase, and a lower precipitation temperature compared with the solidus temperature of the matrix.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. E. Levine and D.C. Hill: Metall. Trans. A, 1977, vol. 8A, pp. 1453-63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. R.A. Farrar and P.L. Harrison: J. Mater. Sci., 1987, vol. 22, pp. 3812-20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. J.M. Dowling, J.M. Corbett and H.W. Kerr: Metall. Trans. A, 1986, vol. 17A, pp. 1611-23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. J.M. Gregg and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1994, vol. 25, pp. 1603-11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. T. Yamada, H. Terasaki and Y. Komizo: ISIJ Int., 2009, vol. 49, pp. 1059-62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. T. Suzuki, J. Inoue and T. Koseki: Trends in Welding Research, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference, p. 292, Pine Mountain, Georgia, 2008.

  7. J.M. Gregg and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Acta Mater., 1997, vol. 45, pp. 739-48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. J.-H. Shim, Y.W. Cho, S.H. Chung, J.-D. Shim and D.N. Lee: Acta Mater., 1999, vol. 47, pp. 2751-60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. J.-H. Shim, Y.-J. Oh, J.-Y. Suh, Y.W. Cho, J.-D. Shim, J.-S. Byun and D.N. Lee: Acta Mater., 2001, vol. 49, pp. 2115-22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. J.-H. Shim, J.-S. Byun, Y.W. Cho, Y.-J. Oh, J.-D. Shim and D.N. Lee: Scripta Mater., 2001, vol. 44, pp. 49-54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. J.-S. Byun, J.-H. Shim, Y.W. Cho and D.N. Lee: Acta Mater., 2003, vol. 51, pp. 1593-1606.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. J.S. Seo, H.J. Kim and C. Lee: ISIJ Int., 2013, vol. 53, pp. 880-86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Y. Kang, J. Jang, J.H. Park and C. Lee: Met. Mater. Int., 2014, vol. 20, pp. 119-27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. M. Enomoto: Met. Mater., 1998, vol. 4, pp. 115-23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. S.S. Babu: Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci., 2004, vol. 8, pp. 267-78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. A.-F. Gourgues, H.M. Flower and T.C. Lindley: Mater. Sci. Tech. Ser., 2000, vol. 16, pp. 26-40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. J.R. Yang and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: J. Mater. Sci., 1991, vol. 26, pp. 839-45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. S.S. Babu and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Mater. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 1992, vol. 156, pp. 1-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. J.H. Park and Y.-B. Kang: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2006, vol. 37B, pp. 791-97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. J.H. Park: CALPHAD, 2011, vol. 35, pp. 455-62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. J.S. Park, C. Lee and J.H. Park: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2012, vol. 43B, pp. 1550-64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. W.C. Leslie: The Physical Metallurgy of Steels, McGraw-Hill, New York (1982) 176.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

This work was supported by the Fundamental R&D Program for the Core Technology of Materials (K0006030, Development of joining materials by the control of phase transformation and critical energy) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MI, Korea).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Changhee Lee.

Additional information

Manuscript submitted February 4, 2014.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kang, Y., Han, K., Park, J.H. et al. Mn-Depleted Zone Formation in Rapidly Cooled High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Welds. Metall Mater Trans A 45, 4753–4757 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Weld Metal
  • Ilmenite
  • Solidus Temperature
  • Steel Weld
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy