Skip to main content
Log in

Localized Deformation in Multiphase, Ultra-Fine-Grained 6 Pct Mn Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel

  • Symposium: Austenite Formation and Decomposition IV
  • Published:
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Multiphase, ultra-fine-grained transformation-induced plasticity (MP UFG TRIP) steel containing 6 mass pct Mn was obtained by cold rolling and intercritical annealing of an initially fully martensitic microstructure. UFG microstructures with an average grain size less than 300 nm were obtained. The amount of austenite in the microstructures, speculated to be formed by diffusionless transformation, was controlled by changing the intercritical temperature. The tensile properties were strongly influenced by the volume amount and the stability of the reversely transformed austenite. The MP UFG TRIP steel was characterized by pronounced localization of the deformation. The deformation band properties were analyzed in detail.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. JEOL is a trademark of Japan Electron Optics Ltd., Tokyo.


  1. J.T. Wang, C. Xu, Z.Z. Du, G.Z. Qu, and T.G. Langdon: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, vols. 410–411, pp. 312–15.

    Google Scholar 

  2. K.-T. Park, S.Y. Han, B.D. Ahn, D.H. Shin, Y.K. Lee, and K.K. Um: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 51 (9), pp. 909–13.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Y.I. Son, Y.K. Lee, K.T. Park, C.S. Lee, and D.H. Shin: Acta Mater., 2005, vol. 53 (11), pp. 3125–34.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. X. Huang, N. Kamikawa, N. Tsuji, and N. Hansen: ISIJ Int., 2008, vol. 48 (8), pp. 1080–87.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. N. Tsuji, N. Kamikawa, R. Ueji, N. Takata, H. Koyama, and D. Terada: ISIJ Int., 2008, vol. 48 (8), pp. 1114–21.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Z. Horita, D. Smith, M. Furukawa, M. Nemoto, R.Z. Valiev, and T.G. Langdon: J. Mater. Res., 1996, vol. 11 (8), pp. 1880–90.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Y. Wang, M. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Ma: Nature, 2002, vol. 419, pp. 912–15.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. R.Z. Valiev: Nature, 2002, vol. 419, p. 887.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. R.L. Miller: Metall. Trans., 1972, vol. 3, pp. 905–12.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. M.J. Merwin: Steel Product Metallurgy and Applications Product Metallurgy II, Proc. Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition (MS&T 07), ASM, COBO Center, Detroit, MI, Sept. 16–20, 2007, pp. 515–36.

  11. M.J. Merwin: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2007, vols. 539–543, pp. 4327–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. S.J. Lee, Y.M. Park, and Y.K. Lee: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, vol. 515, pp. 32–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. H. Schumann: Arch. Eisenhütt., 1967, vol. 38, p. 647; 1969, vol. 40, p. 1027.

  14. E. Jimenez-Melero, N.H, van Dijk, L. Zhao, J. Sietsma, S.E. Offerman, J.P. Wright, and S. van der Zwaag: Scripta Mater., 2007, vol. 56 (5), pp. 421–24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. K. Tomimura, S. Takaki, and Y. Tokunaga: ISIJ Int., 1991, vol. 31 (12), pp. 1431–37.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. J. F. Breedis: Acta Metall., 1965, vol. 13, pp. 239–50.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. T. Vreeland, Jr., D.S. Wood, and D.S. Clark: Acta Metall., 1953, vol. 1 (4), pp. 414–21.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. D.W. Moon: Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 1966.

  19. P.J. Worthington and E. Smith: Acta Metall., 1964, vol. 12 (1), pp. 1277–81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. E. Ma: Scripta Mater., 2003, vol. 49 (7), pp. 663–68.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Y.G. Ko, D.H. Shin, K.T. Park, and C.S. Lee: Scripta Mater., 2006, vol. 54 (10), pp. 1785–89.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. N. Tsuji, N. Kamikawa, R. Ueji, N. Takata, H. Koyama, and Daisuke Terada: ISIJ Int., 2008, vol. 48 (8), pp. 1114–21.

  23. E.O. Hall: Yield Point Phenomena in Metals and Alloys, Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1971, pp. 1–126.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Y. Tomota, A. Narui, and N. Tsuchida: ISIJ Int., 2008, vol. 48, pp. 1107–13.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of POSCO. In addition, the authors thank Taejin Song, Dongwhi Kim, Chen Lei, and Jinkyung Kim for their assistance with the experiments. This research was supported by WCU (World Class University) program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (R32-10147).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. C. De Cooman.

Additional information

Manuscript submitted June 10, 2010.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lee, S., Lee, SJ., Santhosh Kumar, S. et al. Localized Deformation in Multiphase, Ultra-Fine-Grained 6 Pct Mn Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel. Metall Mater Trans A 42, 3638–3651 (2011).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: