Advertisement

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 642–658 | Cite as

Friction Stir Processing Technology: A Review

Article

Abstract

Friction stir processing (FSP), developed based on the basic principles of friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining process originally developed for aluminum alloys, is an emerging metalworking technique that can provide localized modification and control of microstructures in near-surface layers of processed metallic components. The FSP causes intense plastic deformation, material mixing, and thermal exposure, resulting in significant microstructural refinement, densification, and homogeneity of the processed zone. The FSP technique has been successfully used for producing the fine-grained structure and surface composite, modifying the microstructure of materials, and synthesizing the composite and intermetallic compound in situ. In this review article, the current state of the understanding and development of FSP is addressed.

Keywords

Friction Stir Welding Equal Channel Angular Pressing Friction Stir Welding Friction Stir Processing Stir Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Outstanding Young Scientist Foundation under Grant No. 50525103, the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2006CB605205, the National High-Tech Research Program of China under Grant No. 2006AA03Z111, and the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References

  1. 1.
    W.M. Thomas, E.D. Nicholas, J.C. Needham, M.G. Murch, P. Templesmith, and C.J. Dawes: G.B. Patent Application No. 9125978.8, Dec. 1991.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.S. Mishra, Z.Y. Ma: Mater. Sci. Eng., R, 2005, vol. R50, pp. 1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.W. Mahoney, C.G. Rhodes, J.G. Flintoff, R.A. Spurling, W.H. Bingel: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1998, vol. 29A, pp. 1955–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.Q. Su, T.W. Nelson, R. Mishra, M. Mahoney: Acta Mater., 2003, vol. 51, pp. 713–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ø. Frigaard, Ø. Grong, J. Hjelen, S. Gulbrandsen-Dahl, and O.T. Midling: Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1999, TWI, Cambridge, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Bussu, P.E. Irving: Int. J. Fatigue, 2003, vol. 25, pp. 77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W.B. Lee, Y.M. Yeon, S.B. Jung: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2003, vol. 19, pp. 785–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.A. Esparza, W.C. Davis, L.E. Murr: J. Mater. Sci., 2003, vol. 38, pp. 941–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.A. Prado, L.E. Murr, D.J. Shindo, K.F. Sota: Scripta Mater., 2001, vol. 45, pp. 75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Ceschini, I. Boromei, G. Minak, A. Morri, F. Tarterini: Compos. Sci. Technol., 2007, vol. 67, pp. 605–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Kimapong, T. Watanabe: Weld. J., 2004, vol. 83, pp. 277S–282SGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.M. Chen, R. Kovacevic: Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf., 2004, vol. 44, pp. 1205–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Campbell, T. Stotler: Weld. J., 1999, vol. 78, pp. 45–47Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.J. Colligan, J.J. Fisher, J.E. Gover, J.R. Pickens: Adv. Mater. Processes, 2002, vol. 160, pp. 39–41Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Ding, R. Carter, K. Lawless, A. Nunes, C. Russel, M. Suits, J. Schneider: Weld. J., 2006, vol. 85, pp. 55–59Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.J. Arbegast: Weld. J., 2006, vol. 85, pp. 28–35Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney, S.X. McFadden, N.A. Mara, A.K. Mukherjee: Scripta Mater., 2000, vol. 42, pp. 163–68Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2001, vols. 357–359, pp. 507–12Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney: Acta Mater., 2002, vol. 50, pp. 4419–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.S. Mishra, Z.Y. Ma, I. Charit: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2002, vol. A341, pp. 307–10Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P.B. Berbon, W.H. Bingel, R.S. Mishra, C.C. Bampton, M.W. Mahoney: Scripta Mater., 2001, vol. 44, pp. 61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.E. Spowart, Z.Y. Ma, and R.S. Mishra: in Friction Stir Welding and Processing II, K.V Jata, M.W Mahoney, R.S Mishra, S.L Semiatin, and T. Lienert, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2003, pp. 243–52Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z.Y. Ma, S.R. Sharma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2003, vols. 426–432, pp. 2891–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.J. Lee, J.C. Huang, P.J. Hsieh: Scripta Mater., 2006, vol. 54, pp. 1415–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Morisada, H. Fujii, T. Nagaoka, M. Fukusumi: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2006, vol. A419, pp. 344–48Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Morisada, H. Fujii, T. Nagaoka, M. Fukusumi: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2006, vol. A433, pp. 50–54Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Dixit, J.W. Newkirk, R.S. Mishra: Scripta Mater., 2007, vol. 56, pp. 541–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.R. Sharma, Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 51, pp. 237–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Z.Y. Ma, S.R. Sharma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, vol. 37A, pp. 3323–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Z.Y. Ma, S.R. Sharma, R.S. Mishra: Scripta Mater., 2006, vol. 54, pp. 1623–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Oh-ishi, T.R. McNelley: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2004, vol. 35A, pp. 2951–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.H. Feng, Z.Y. Ma: Scripta Mater., 2007, vol. 56, pp. 397–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C.J. Hsu, P.W. Kao, N.J. Ho: Scripta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 341–45Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C.H. Chuang, J.C. Huang, P.J. Hsieh: Scripta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 1455–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C.J. Hsu, C.Y. Chang, P.W. Kao, N.J. Ho, C.P. Chang: Acta Mater., 2006, vol. 54, pp. 5241–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra: Scripta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.G. Rhodes, M.W. Mahoney, W.H. Bingel, M. Calabrese: Scripta Mater., 2003, vol. 48, pp. 1451–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.Q. Shu, T.W. Nelson, C.J. Sterling: J. Mater. Res., 2003, vol. 18, pp. 1757–60Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J.Q. Shu, T.W. Nelson, C.J. Sterling: Scripta Mater., 2005, vol. 52, pp. 135–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.F. Norman, I. Brough, P.B. Prangnell: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2000, vols. 331–337, pp. 1713–18Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    I. Charit, R.S. Mishra: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2003, vol. A359, pp. 290–96Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T.R. McNelley, M.E. McMahon: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1997, vol. 28A, pp. 1879–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Eddahbi, T.R. McNelley, O.A. Ruano: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, vol. 32A, pp. 1093–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    C.I. Chang, C.J. Lee, J.C. Huang: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 51, pp. 509–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    G.R. Cui, Z.Y. Ma and S.X. Li: Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China, unpublished research, 2007.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    I. Charit, R.S. Mishra: J. Mater. Res., 2004, vol. 19, pp. 3329–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney, R. Grimes: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2003, vol. A351, pp. 148–53Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney, R. Grimes: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36A, pp. 1447–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    I. Charit, R.S. Mishra: Acta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 4211–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 50, pp. 931–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Cavaliere, P.P. De Marco: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, vol. 184, pp. 77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. Cavaliere, P.P. De Marco: J. Mater. Sci., 2006, vol. 41, pp. 3459–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Mahoney, R.S. Mishra, T. Nelson, J. Flintoff, R. Islamgaliev, and Y. Hovansky: in Friction Stir Welding and Processing, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2001, p. 183–94.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Mahoney, C. Fuller, and W. Bingel: Rockwell Scientific, Thousand Oaks, CA, unpublished research, 2006.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    T.R. McNelley, R. Crooks, P.N. Kalu, S.A. Rogers: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 1993, vol. A106, pp. 135–43Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    I.C. Hsiao, J.C. Huang: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, vol. 33A, pp. 1373–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    R.Z. Valiev, T.G. Langdon: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2006, vol. 51, pp. 881–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    R.Z. Valiev: Mater. Sci. Forum, 1997, vols. 243–245, pp. 207–16Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    R.S. Mishra, R.Z. Valiev, S.X. McFadden, R.K. Islamgaliev, A.K. Mukherjee: Philos. Mag. A, 2001, vol. 81, pp. 37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Noda, M. Hirohashi, K. Funami: Mater. Trans., 2003, vol. 44, pp. 2288–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    N. Tsuji, K. Shiotsuki, Y. Saito: Mater. Trans. JIM, 1999, vol. 40, pp. 765–71Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M.W. Mahoney, R. Mishra, and T. Nelson: Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, TWI, Kobe, Japan, 2002.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. Mahoney, A.J. Barrnes, W.H. Bingel, C. Fuller: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2004, vols. 447–448, pp. 505–12Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    R.S. Mishra: Adv. Mater. Processes, 2004, vol. 162, pp. 45–47Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    P. Heurtier, C. Desrayaud, F. Montheillet: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2002, vols. 396–402, pp. 1537–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Z.Y. Ma and R.S. Mishra: in Surface Engineering: in Materials Science II, S. Seel, N.B. Dahotre, J.J. Moore, C. Suryanarayana, and A. Agarwal, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2003, pp. 243–50.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    C.J. Lee, J.C. Huang: Mater. Trans., 2006, vol. 47, pp. 2773–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    C.I. Chang, Y.N. Wang, H.R. Pei, C.J. Lee, J.C. Huang: Mater. Trans., 2006, vol. 47, pp. 2942–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    J.H. Lee, K. Hamada, K. Mizuuchi, M. Taya, K. Inoue: Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., 1997, vol. 459, pp. 419–24Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Z.C. Wei, C.Y. Tang, W.B. Lee: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 1997, vol. 69, pp. 68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    D.L. Zalensas: Aluminum Casting Technology, 2nd ed., AFS Inc., Schaumburg, IL, 1993, p. 77Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    D.L. Zhang, L. Zheng: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1996, vol. 27A, pp. 3983–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    G. Atxaga, A. Pelayo, A.M. Irisarri: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, vol. 17, pp. 446–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    K.T. Kashyap, S. Murrall, K.S. Raman, K.S.S. Murthy: Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, vol. 9, pp. 189–203Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    L. Wang, S. Shivkumar: Z. Metallkd., 1995, vol. 86, pp. 441–45Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    M.L. Santella, T. Engstrom, D. Storjohann, T.Y. Pan: Scripta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 201–06CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    K. Nakata, Y.G. Kim, H. Fujii, T. Tsumura, T. Komazaki: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2006, vol. 437, pp. 274–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Z.Y. Ma, A.L. Pilchak, M.C. Juhas, and J.C. Williams: Scripta Mater., 2008, vol. 58, pp. 361–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. Tsujikawa, S.W. Chung, M. Tanaka, Y. Takigawa, S. Oki, K. Higashi: Mater. Trans., 2005, vol. 46, pp. 3081–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    M. Tsujikawa, S.W. Chung, T. Morishige, L.F. Chiang, Y. Takigawa, S. Oki, K. Higashi: Mater. Trans., 2007, vol. 48, pp. 618–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    D. Zhang, M. Suzuki, K. Maruyama: Scripta Mater., 2005, vol. 52, pp. 899–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    D. Zhang, M. Suzuki, K. Maruyama: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2007, vols. 539–543, pp. 3739–44Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    K. Mathis, J. Gubicza, N.H. Nam: J. Alloys Compd., 2005, vol. 394, pp. 194–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    S. Kleiner, O. Beffort, P.J. Uggowitzer: Scripta Mater., 2004, vol. 51, pp. 405–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    B. Askari, S. Silling, B. London, M. Mahoney: JOM, 2004, vol. 56, pp. 245–46Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    T. Long, T.U. Seidel, W. Tang, A.P. Reynolds: Hot Deformation of Aluminum Alloys III—TMS Annual Meeting, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2003, pp. 299–312.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    R.L. Goetz and K.V. Jata: in Friction Stir Welding and Processing, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2001, pp. 35–42.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    S. Celotto, T.J. Bastow: Acta Mater., 2001, vol. 49, pp. 41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    J.A. Duma: Nav. Eng. J., 1975, vol. 87, pp. 45–64Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    R.J. Ferrara, T.E. Caton: Mater. Performance, 1982, vol. 21, pp. 30–34Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    M. Mahoney, W. Bingel, S. Sharma, R. Mishra: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2003, vols. 426–432, pp. 2843–48Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    K. Oh-ishi, T. McNelley: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2004, vol. 35A, pp. 2951–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    K. Oh-ishi, T. McNelley: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, vol. 36A, pp. 1575–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    K. Oh-ishi, A.P. Zhilyaev, T. McNelley: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2006, vols. 503–504, pp. 161–68Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    T. McNelley, K. Oh-ishi, A.P. Zhilyaev: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2007, vols. 539–543, pp. 3745–50Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    M. Mahoney, C. Fuller, W.H. Bingel, M. Calabrese: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2007, vols. 539–543, pp. 3721–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    C.B. Fuller, M.W. Mahoney, W.H. Bingel, M. Calabrese, B. London: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2007, vols. 539–543, pp. 3751–76Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D. Eylon and B. Strope: J. Mater. Sci., 1979, vol. 14, pp. 345–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    A.L. Pilchak, M.C. Juhas, J.C. Williams: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2007, vol. 38A, pp. 401–08CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    A.L. Pilchak, D.M. Norfleet, M.C. Juhas, J.C. Williams: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, in pressGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    A.L. Pilchak, M.C. Juhas, and J.C. Williams: Proc. 11th World Conf. on Titanium, Kyoto, Japan, 2007, in press.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    G. Lütjering, J.C. Williams: Titanium, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003, p. 63Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    V.V.B. Prasad, B.V.R. Bhat, Y.R. Mahajan, P. Ramakrishnan: Mater. Manuf. Processes, 2001, vol. 16, pp. 841–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    S.C. Tjong, Z.Y. Ma: Compos. Sci. Technol., 1999, vol. 59, pp. 1117–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    A. Slipenyuk, V. Kuprin, Y. Milman, J.E. Spowart, D.B. Miracle: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2004, vol. 381, pp. 165–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    B.L. Xiao, J.Z. Fan, X.F. Tian, W.Y. Zhang, L.K. Shi: J. Mater. Sci., 2005, vol. 40, pp. 5757–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    V.V.B. Prasad, B.V.R. Bhat, Y.R. Mahajan, P. Ramakrishnan: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2002, vol. 337, pp. 179–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    G. Biallas, R. Braun, C.D. Donne, G. Staniek, W.A. Keysser: Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welds, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1999.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    M.A. Meyers, A. Mishra, D.J. Benson: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2006, vol. 51, pp. 427–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Metal ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesShenyangP.R. China

Personalised recommendations