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Hip structural analysis, trabecular bone score, and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a multi-center cross-sectional study in the south of Iran

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Abstract

Summary

This study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture, and proximal hip geometry in diabetic postmenopausal women, where BMD alone cannot reflect bone strength adequately. We found significantly lower trabecular bone score and BMD at the distal radius and total forearm in diabetic subjects compared to controls.

Purpose

The limitations resulting from the exclusive assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) in people with diabetes can lead to underestimation of microarchitectural and geometric changes, both of which play an essential role in the fracture risk. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and hip structural analysis (HSA) in diabetic type-2 post-menopausal women and compare them with healthy postmenopausal subjects.

Methods

BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine, femoral sites, distal radius, and total forearm using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); TBS was measured based on DXA images using the software at the same region of interest as the BMD measurements; geometric assessment at the proximal femur was performed by the HSA program.

Results

A total of 348 ambulatory type-2 diabetic postmenopausal women and 539 healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled. TBS and BMD at the distal radius and total forearm were significantly (P value < 0.05) lower in cases compared to controls after age and body mass index (BMI) adjustment. In addition, degraded bone microarchitecture was significantly (P value < 0.05) more prevalent in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic controls after adjusting for age and BMI. A number of geometric indices of the proximal hip were significantly lower in the controls than in those with diabetes (P-value < 0.05).

Conclusion

This study may highlight the utility of the TBS and BMD at the distal radius and total forearm in subjects with type-2 diabetes mellitus, where the BMD at central sites may not adequately predict fracture risk.

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Data availability

The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available and can be requested from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Nasrin Shokrpour for editorial assistance.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of The Human Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with the approval code of IR.SUMS.REC.1401.281 and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Naseri, A., Shojaeefard, E., Bakhshayeshkaram, M. et al. Hip structural analysis, trabecular bone score, and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a multi-center cross-sectional study in the south of Iran. Arch Osteoporos 18, 98 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11657-023-01310-1

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