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Modifiable lifestyle factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men: a case-control study



The prevention, education, and treatment of osteoporosis are all recognized as important components in men as well as women. This study revealed that the lifestyle factors associated with male osteoporosis included being underweight and being a current smoker. Being overweight or obese and having a regular exercise habit were negatively associated with male osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in Korea and worldwide. Although osteoporosis is less prevalent in males than in females, the fracture-related mortality rate is higher in males than in females. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of modifiable lifestyle factors in males with osteoporosis.


A case-control study was performed in men who visited a single university hospital for a medical check-up between August 2003 and July 2016. Patients were classified in the case group according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Osteoporosis Criteria. The control group was created by matching patients according to age and check-up date. Lifestyle factors were evaluated by a self-assessment questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between lifestyle factors and male osteoporosis with age stratification at 50 years.


A total of 1304 subjects were included in this analysis, 326 of whom were in the case group and 978 of whom were in the control group. Within their age group, subjects with osteoporosis were more often underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–4.98) or more often current smokers (2.22, 1.50–3.28) than control subjects. The subjects who were overweight (0.45, 0.32–0.64), obese (0.19, 0.13–0.27), had an irregular exercise habit (0.64, 0.43–0.94), or had a regular exercise habit (0.40, 0.28–0.57) were more likely to have normal bone status. Alcohol drinking habit had no significant association with male osteoporosis.


Several modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with male osteoporosis. Current smokers at any age and underweight men below age 50 were more likely to have osteoporosis, whereas men who were overweight, obese, or had a regular exercise habit were more likely to have normal bone status, regardless of age.

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All authors (KYP, HKP, HSH) contributed to the design of the study, interpretation of the results and development of the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Hoon-Ki Park.

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Park, KY., Hwang, HS. & Park, HK. Modifiable lifestyle factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men: a case-control study. Arch Osteoporos 12, 56 (2017).

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  • Osteoporosis
  • Men
  • Lifestyle
  • Screening