Archives of Osteoporosis

, 11:13 | Cite as

Time trends in hospital stay after hip fracture in Canada, 2004–2012: database study

  • Boris SobolevEmail author
  • Pierre Guy
  • Katie Jane Sheehan
  • Lisa Kuramoto
  • Eric Bohm
  • Lauren Beaupre
  • Jason M. Sutherland
  • Michael Dunbar
  • Donald Griesdale
  • Suzanne N. Morin
  • Edward Harvey
  • for The Canadian Collaborative Study on Hip Fractures
Original Article



Changes in bed management and access policy aimed to shorten Canadian hip fracture hospital stay. Secular trends in hip fracture total, preoperative, and postoperative stay are unknown. Hip fracture stay shortened from 2004 to 2012, mostly from shortening postoperative stay. This may reflect changes in bed management rather than access policy.


To compare the probability of discharge by time after patient admission to hospital with first-time hip fracture over a period of nine calendar years.


We retrieved acute hospitalization records for 169,595 patients 65 years and older, who were admitted to an acute care hospital with hip fracture between 2004 and 2012 in Canada (outside of Quebec). The main outcome measure was cumulative incidence of discharge by inpatient day, accounting for competing events that end hospital stay.


The probability of surgical discharge within 30 days of admission increased from 57.2 % in 2004 to 67.3 % in 2012. The probability of undergoing surgery on day of admission or day after fluctuated around 58.5 % over the study period. For postoperative stay, the discharge probability increased from 6.8 to 12.2 % at day 4 after surgery and from 57.2 to 66.6 % at day 21 after surgery, between 2004 and 2012. The differences across years persisted after adjustment for characteristics of patients, fracture, comorbidity, treatment, type and timing of surgery, and access to care.


Hospital stay following hip fracture shortened substantially between 2004 and 2012 in Canada, mostly due to shortening of postoperative stays. Shorter hospital stays may reflect changes in bed management protocols rather than in access policy.


Hip fracture Length of stay Postoperative stay Time trends Cumulative incidence Competing risks 



We gratefully acknowledge the guidance from the CIHI experts in understanding the discharge abstracts.

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding source

This research was funded by the Canadian Institute for Health Research. This funder had no role in the design of this study, execution, analyses, data interpretation, or decision to submit results for publication.

Conflicts of interest

The following competing interests are declared: (1) PG has received grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research related to this work. PG also receives funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and the British Columbia Specialists Services Committee for work around hip fracture care not related to this manuscript. He has also received fees from the BC Specialists Services Committee (for a provincial quality improvement project on redesign of hip fracture care) and from Stryker Orthopedics (as a product development consultant). He is a board member and shareholder in Traumis Surgical Systems Inc. and a board member for the Canadian Orthopedic Foundation. He also serves on the speakers’ bureaus of AO Trauma North America and Stryker Canada. (2) SNM reports grants from Amgen Canada, grants from Merck, personal fees from Amgen Canada, and personal fees from Eli Lilly outside the submitted work. (3) KS is a postdoctoral fellow whose salary is paid by Canadian Institutes of Health Research funding related to this work. (4) BS, LK, EB, LB, JMS, MD, DG, EH declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11657_2016_264_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Additional File 1 (DOC 30 kb)
11657_2016_264_MOESM2_ESM.doc (190 kb)
Additional File 2 (DOC 189 kb)


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris Sobolev
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pierre Guy
    • 2
  • Katie Jane Sheehan
    • 1
  • Lisa Kuramoto
    • 3
  • Eric Bohm
    • 4
  • Lauren Beaupre
    • 5
  • Jason M. Sutherland
    • 1
  • Michael Dunbar
    • 6
  • Donald Griesdale
    • 7
  • Suzanne N. Morin
    • 8
  • Edward Harvey
    • 9
  • for The Canadian Collaborative Study on Hip Fractures
  1. 1.School of Population and Public HealthUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Vancouver Coastal Health Research InstituteUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and Center for Healthcare InnovationUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  5. 5.Departments of Physical Therapy and Division of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  6. 6.Division of Orthopaedic SurgeryDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  7. 7.Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & TherapeuticsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  8. 8.Department of MedicineMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  9. 9.Division of Orthopaedic SurgeryMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada

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