Archives of Osteoporosis

, 8:134 | Cite as

Bone mineral density, metabolic syndrome, and vitamin D in indigenous from south of Brazil

  • Ana Karina Silva da Rocha
  • Ângelo José Gonçalves Bós
  • Guilherme Carnenaz
  • Denise Cantarelli Machado
Original Article



Bone mineral density (BMD), metabolic syndrome (MS), and vitamin D levels were evaluated in 73 indigenous from south of Brazil aged between 40 and 86 years. BMD loss in lumbar spine was detected in 63 %, MS was detected in 76.7 %, and vitamin D levels were altered in 67 % of subjects.


This study aims to evaluate bone mineral density and its relationship with metabolic syndrome (MS) and vitamin D levels in indigenous from south of Brazil.


Transversal, descriptive, analytical study was developed in Nonoai City between October and December 2011. Seventy-three indigenous people aged between 40 and 86 years were enrolled. MS was defined according to NCEP-III. Serum levels of vitamin D and other parameters were quantified to define metabolic syndrome. Spine and femur bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral loss was classified using the World Health Organization criteria.


Sixty-three percent of indigenous participants presented bone mineral loss in lumbar spine, and 19 % in femur. Overall frequency of MS was 76.7 % and more prevalent in females. Lower serum levels of vitamin D were observed in 67 % of the participants. Among the risk factors related to MS criteria, only the HDL levels were associated with bone mineral loss. Regarding nutritional habits, there were positive correlations between fat foods and meat intakes, MS, and low levels of vitamin D.


The elderly indigenous people present a high incidence of low bone mineral density, mainly in the lumbar spine, low levels of vitamin D, and a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Public health policy should also prioritize chronic degenerative diseases prevention and care for indigenous people. Healthier lifestyle in this population should be a focus for health promotion program by the governments.


Bone mass density Metabolic syndrome Vitamin D Elderly indigenous 


  1. 1.
    Jackson KA, Savaiano DA (2001) Lactose maldigestion, calcium intake and osteoporosis in African-, Asian-, and Hispanic-Americans. J Am Coll Nutr 20(2 Suppl):198S–207SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP et al (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(7):1911–1930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    da Rocha AK, Bos AJ, Huttner E, Machado DC (2011) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in indigenous people over 40 years of age in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica 29(1):41–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The National Resource Center on Native American Aging, University of North Dakota (2006) American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Program. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington p. 18–46Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saely CH, Koch L, Schmid F, Marte T, Aczel S, Langer P, Hoefle G, Drexel H (2006) Adult Treatment Panel III 2001 but not International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria of the metabolic syndrome predict clinical cardiovascular events in subjects who underwent coronary angiography. Diabetes Care 29(4):901–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Diabetes Federation (2005) The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. Available in Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  7. 7.
    Holick MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357:266–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy (2001) Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 285(6):785–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leslie WD, Metge CJ, Weiler HA, Doupe M, Steiman PW, O’Neil JD (2006) Bone density and bone area in Canadian Aboriginal women: the First Nations Bone Health Study. Osteoporos Int 17(17):55–62Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barrett-Connor E, Siris ES, Wehren LE, Miller PD, Abbott TA, Berger ML et al (2005) Osteoporosis and fracture risk in women of different ethnic groups. J Bone Miner Res 20(2):185–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strasser B (2012) Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06785.x PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Norgan NG (1994) Interpretation of low body mass indices: Australian aborigines. Am J Phys Anthropol 94(2):229–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coimbra CEA, Flowers NM, Salzano FM, Santos RV (2002) The Xavante in transition: health, ecology and bioanthropology in Central Brazil. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gugelmin SA, Santos RV (2001) Human ecology and nutritional anthropometry of adult Xavante Indians in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 17(2):313–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Filner JJ, Krohn KD, Lapidus JA, Becker TM (2002) Risk factors for osteoporosis in Alaska Native women: a cross-sectional survey. Alaska Med 44(1):8–13, 21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wampler NS, Chen Z, Jacobsen C, Henderson JA, Howard BV, Rossouw JE (2005) Bone mineral density of American Indian and Alaska Native women compared with non-Hispanic White women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Study. Menopause 12(5):536–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford ES (2005) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care 28(11):2745–2749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reynolds K, He J (2005) Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome. Am J Med Sci 330(6):273–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Trost SG, Marshall AL, Miller R, Hurley JT, Hunt JA (2007) Validation of a 24-h physical activity recall in indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adolescents. J Sci Med Sport 10(6):428–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hwang DK, Choi HJ (2010) The relationship between low bone mass and metabolic syndrome in Korean women. Osteoporos Int 21(3):425–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brazdilova K, Dlesk A, Koller T, Killinger Z, Payer J (2012) Vitamin D deficiency—a possible link between osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Bratisl Lek Listy 113(7):412–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    von Muhlen D, Safii S, Jassal SK, Svartberg J, Barrett-Connor E (2007) Associations between the metabolic syndrome and bone health in older men and women: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Osteoporos Int 18(10):1337–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cappuccio FP, Meilahn E, Zmuda JM, Cauley JA (1999) High blood pressure and bone-mineral loss in elderly white women: a prospective study. Study Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 354(9183):971–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tseng YH, Huang KC, Liu ML, Shu WT, Sheu WH (2009) Association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone mineral loss: a cross-sectional study in Puli Township in Taiwan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 49(Suppl 2):S37–S40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Spindler A, Lucero E, Berman A, Paz S, Vega E, Mautalen C (1995) Bone mineral density in a native population of Argentina with low calcium intake. J Rheumatol 22(11):2148–2151PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Karina Silva da Rocha
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ângelo José Gonçalves Bós
    • 1
  • Guilherme Carnenaz
    • 1
  • Denise Cantarelli Machado
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Geriatrics and Gerontology Institute of Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Biomedical Research Institute of Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Methodist Institute of Porto Alegre (IPA)Porto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Molecular and Cell BiologyBiomedical Research InstitutePorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations