Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study
Dairy foods are a complex source of essential nutrients. In this study, fluid dairy intake, specifically milk, and yogurt intakes were associated with hip but not spine bone mineral density (BMD), while cream may adversely influence BMD, suggesting that not all dairy products are equally beneficial for the skeleton.
This study seeks to examine associations of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, most dairy (total dairy without cream), and fluid dairy (milk + yogurt) with BMD at femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR), and spine, and with incident hip fracture over 12-year follow-up in the Framingham Offspring Study.
Three thousand two hundred twelve participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (1992–1995 or 1995–1998) and were followed for hip fracture until 2005. Two thousand five hundred and six participants had DXA BMD (1996–2001). Linear regression was used to estimate adjusted mean BMD while Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hip fracture risk. Final models simultaneously included dairy foods adjusting for each other.
Mean baseline age was 55 (±1.6) years, range 26–85. Most dairy intake was positively associated with hip and spine BMD. Intake of fluid dairy and milk was related with hip but not spine BMD. Yogurt intake was associated with TR-BMD alone. Cheese and cream intakes were not associated with BMD. In final models, yogurt intake remained positively associated with TR-BMD, while cream tended to be negatively associated with FN-BMD. Yogurt intake showed a weak protective trend for hip fracture [HR(95%CI), ≤4 serv/week, 0.46 (0.21–1.03) vs. >4 serv/week, 0.43 (0.06–3.27)]. No other dairy groups showed a significant association (HRs range, 0.53–1.47) with limited power (n, fractures = 43).
Milk and yogurt intakes were associated with hip but not spine BMD, while cream may adversely influence BMD. Thus, not all dairy products are equally beneficial for the skeleton. Suggestive fracture results for milk and yogurt intakes need further confirmation.
KeywordsDairy Milk Yogurt Bone mineral density Hip fracture Dietary intake Bone health
- 1.National Osteoporosis Foundation. Fast Facts. http://www.nof.org/node/40. Accessed September 5, 2012
- 3.Dietary guidelines for Americans (2005). Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 6th edn. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Government, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- 10.Kiel DP, Mercier CA, Dawson-Hughes B, Cali C, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ (1995) The effects of analytic software and scan analysis technique on the comparison of dual X-ray absorptiometry with dual photon absorptiometry of the hip in the elderly. J Bone Miner Res 10(7):1130–1136. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650100719 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Kanis JA, Orav EJ, Staehelin HB, Kiel DP, Burckhardt P, Henschkowski J, Spiegelman D, Li R, Wong JB, Feskanich D, Willett WC (2011) Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res 26(4):833–839. doi:10.1002/jbmr.279 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Moschonis G, Manios Y (2006) Skeletal site-dependent response of bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters following a 12-month dietary intervention using dairy products fortified with calcium and vitamin D: the Postmenopausal Health Study. Br J Nutr 96(6):1140–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar