Archives of Osteoporosis

, Volume 7, Issue 1–2, pp 247–255 | Cite as

The relationship of depression, anxiety and stress with low bone mineral density in post-menopausal women

  • Hany Burstein Erez
  • Aron Weller
  • Nachum Vaisman
  • Shulamith Kreitler
Original Article

Abstract

Summary

The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized negative relations between those mood variables and BMD in three assessed areas. The study showed association between depression and decreased BMD. The hypothesis regarding anxiety and stress was partially confirmed.

Introduction

In the last decade, the relationship of osteoporosis to psychological variables has been increasingly studied. The accumulating evidence from these studies supports the conclusion that depression is related to decreased BMD. Nevertheless, several studies found no support for this relationship. Moreover, only a small number of studies examined the association between anxiety or stress and decreased BMD. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with BMD by means of adequate measuring instruments, while controlling for background factors known to be related to BMD decrease (e.g., body mass index, family history).

Method

The study included 135 post-menopausal female participants, who arrived for BMD screening, between the years 2006 and 2009. Several days prior to the examination, participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing depression and anxiety. BMD was measured using DXA, in spine, right and left hip.

Results

The study showed negative associations between depression and BMD variables in the three assessed areas. There were negative correlations between anxiety, stress and spine BMD, as well as a tendency towards negative relations in the right and left hip BMD. Concurrent hierarchical regressions showed that the addition of the three psychological variables increased the explained variance by 6–8 %. In addition, depression was found to have a unique significant contribution to the explained variance in right and left hip BMD.

Conclusions

The findings provide supporting evidence for the existence of associations between mood variables and decreased BMD. Further research is required for gaining deeper insight into these relationships.

Keywords

Antidepressants Anxiety Bone mineral density Depression Osteoporosis Stress 

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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hany Burstein Erez
    • 1
    • 5
  • Aron Weller
    • 1
  • Nachum Vaisman
    • 2
  • Shulamith Kreitler
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBar Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  2. 2.Tel-Aviv Medical CenterTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  4. 4.Psychooncology Research CenterSheba Medical CenterTel HashomerIsrael
  5. 5.Tel AvivIsrael

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