Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 163–170 | Cite as

Toward Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine: Status Quo, Opportunities and Challenges

  • Yao-long Chen
  • Chen Zhao
  • Li Zhang
  • Bo Li
  • Chuan-hong Wu
  • Wei Mu
  • Jia-ying Wang
  • Ke-hu Yang
  • You-ping Li
  • Chiehfeng Chen
  • Yong-yan Wang
  • Chen Wang
  • Zhao-xiang Bian
  • Hong-cai Shang


How to test the treatments of Chinese medicine (CM) and make them more widely accepted by practitioners of Western medicine and the international healthcare community is a major concern for practitioners and researchers of CM. For centuries, various approaches have been used to identify and measure the efficacy and safety of CM. However, the high-quality evidence related to CM that produced in China is still rare. Over the recent years, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been increasingly applied to CM, strengthening its theoretical basis. This paper reviews the past and present state of CM, analyzes the status quo, challenges and opportunities of basic research, clinical trials, systematic reviews, clinical practice guidelines and clinical pathways and evidence-based education developed or conducted in China, pointing out how EBM can help to make CM more widely used and recognized worldwide.


evidence-based medicine Chinese medicine randomized controlled trial systematic review clinical practice guidelines 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank Janne Estill for his valuable comments and revisions on an earlier draft of this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Group EBMW. Evidence-based medicine: a new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA 1992;268:2420–2425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang J. Evidence-based medicine in China. The Lancet 2010; 375:532–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li YP, Li J, Sun X, Liu M, Zhang MM, Du L, et al. The origin and development of evidence-based medicine in China: The 20th anniversary of the Introduction of evidence-based medicine to China. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2016;16:2–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu DD, Xu F. Chinese medicine and evidence-based medicine. Med Philoy (Chin) 2001;22:57–58.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li YP, Liu M. Evidence-based medicine and modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Chin J Infor Chin Med (Chin) 1999;6:14–16.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang BL. Differentiation of symptoms and prescription of treatment and evidence-based medicine. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2002;2:1–3.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang SH, Chen ZH. Application of evidence-based medicine in Chinese medicine. Study J Tradit Chin Med (Chin) 2002;20:357–362.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang YY, Liu BY, Xie YM. Establishing appraisal mechanism of clinial studies in traditional Chinese medicine with proofing medicine methodology. Chin J Basic Med Tradit Chin Med (Chin) 2003;9:17–23.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sheng MX. Prospect of clinical research and practice of Chinese medicines by method of EBM. Chin J Tradit Chin Med Pharm (Chin) 2003;18:485–486.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ni W, Li J. Evidence-based medicine and research of traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacology. China J Tradit Chin Med Pharm (Chin) 2002;17:644–645.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li N, Guo J, Wang P, Bai FL. Activator to the study of traditional Chinese medicine:method of evidence-based medicine. J Evid Based Med 2003;3:34–36.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lai S, Hu JQ, Guo X. Evidence-based medicine and clinical studies of traditional Chinese medicine. J Guangzhou Univer Tradit Chin Med (Chin) 2000;17:1–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fei F, Zhong NS. From the point of research on the prevention and treatment of influenza to see the road of traditional Chinese medicine. Chin Med Pharm (Chin) 2015;5:1–3.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fei F, Liu SS, Zhang BL. Promote the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine research by evidence-based medicine. Chin Med Pharm (Chin) 2015;5:1–3.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen KJ, Qian ZH, Zhang WQ, Guan WR, Hao XG, Chen XJ, et al. Curative effect analysis of 112 cases of angina pectoris of coronary heart disease with refined coronal slice by double blind method. Bull Med Res (Chin) 1982;11:24–25.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang JL, Zhan SY, Ernst E. Review of randomised controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine. BMJ 1999;319:160–161.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lu Z, Kou W, Du B, Wu Y, Zhao S, Brusco OA, et al. Effect of Xuezhikang, an extract from red yeast Chinese rice, on coronary events in a Chinese population with previous myocardial Infarction. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:1689–1693.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Zhang J, Huang J, Ma A, Yang J, Li W, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of the effects of Qili Qiangxin capsules in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:1065–1072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shang H, Zhang J, Yao C, Liu B, Gao X, Ren M, et al. Qi-shen-yi-qi dripping pills for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction: a randomised clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:738391.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen CLH, Young SHY, Gan HH, Singh R, Lao AY, Baroque AC 2nd, et al. Chinese medicine NeuroAID efficacy on stroke recovery: a double-blind, placebocontrolled, randomized study. Stroke 2013;44:2093–2100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lian F, Li G, Chen X, Wang X, Piao C, Wang J, et al. Chinese herbal medicine Tianqi reduces progression from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:648–655.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang C, Cao B, Liu QQ, Zou ZQ, Liang ZA, Gu L, et al. Oseltamivir compared with the Chinese traditional therapy Maxingshigan-Yinqiaosan in the treatment of H1N1 influenza: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:217–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhu HH, Wu DP, Jin J, Li JY, Ma J, Wang JX, et al. Oral tetraarsenic tetra-sulfide formula versus intravenous arsenic trioxide as first-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:4215–4221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Phase III trial of Dantonic® (T89) capsule to prevent and treat stable angina (CAESA). Available at: Scholar
  25. 25.
    Safety and efficacy of Kanglaite Gelcaps in prostate cancer. Available at: 6?term=kanglaite&rank=4.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Safety and exploratory efficacy of Kanglaite Injection in pancreatic cancer. Available at: Scholar
  27. 27.
    Efficacy and safety study of lipid-lowering effects of XueZhiKang (XZK) in patients with hyperlipidemia. Available at: 4?term=xuezhikang&rank=3.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Assess the antifibrotic activity of Fuzheng Huayu in chronic hepatitis C patients with hepatic fibrosis. Available at: eng+Huayu&rank=1.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Phase II multi-center study of T89 to treat chronic stable angina (T89 phase 2). Available at: Scholar
  30. 30.
    Treatment of primary menstrual pain with Kanion Capsule. Available at: 6?term=Kanion+Capsule&rank=1.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu CH. Clinical summary of the treatment of dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation by concentrated Dangui Wan. Clin Pract 2004;22:394–398.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    MEB annual report 2012. Available at: http://english.cbg-meb. nl/documents/annual-reports/2013/01/01/annual-report-2012.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lei X, Chen J, Liu CX, Lin J, Lou J, et al. Status and thoughts of Chinese patent medicines seeking approval in the US market. Chin J Integr Med 2014;20:403–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang C, Liu Q. A turning point for clinical research in China? Lancet 2013;382:835–836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moher SDD. Consolidated standards for reporting trials of traditional Chinese medicine (CONSORT for TCM). Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2007;7:625–630.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    STRICTA. Available at: Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cheng CW, Fu SF, Wu TX, Shang HC, Tang XD, et al. Extending the CONSORT statement to moxibustion. J Integr Med 2013:54–63.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu T, Li Y, Bian Z, Liu G, Moher D. Randomized trials published in some Chinese journals: how many are randomized? Trials 2008;10:1–8.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mao B, Wang G, Fan G, Chen T, Liu XD, Wang J, et al. Assessing the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2007;7:880–887.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu JP. Current state and countermeasures on quality of randomized controlled studies of traditional Chinese medicine. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med (Chin) 2003;23:62–64.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    LI TQ, Wang G, Wang L, Bao B. Clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine in China: status and evaluation. Chin J Evid Based Med (Chin) 2005;5:431–437.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    He J, Liang D, Liu G, Fu J, He X, Yu J, et al. Quality assessment of reporting of randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding in traditional Chinese medicine RCTs: a review of 3159 RCTs identified from 260 systematic reviews. Trials 2011;12:286–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu JP. Clinical research methodology for evidence-based Chinese medicine. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House;2006:93–102.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Evans D. Hierarchy of evidence: a framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. J Clin Nurs 2003;12:77–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ueng TH, Kang JJ, Wang HW, Lin PC. An overview of the toxicology of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. J Food Drug Anal 1997;5:241–263.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chen Z, Li C, Liu S. Meta analysis on primary non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCL) treated by TCM in China. J Tradit Chin Med (Chin) 1999;40:287–289.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ernst E. Panax ginseng: An overview of the clinical evidence. J Ginseng Res 2010;34:259–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wei W, Zhu ZZ, Jiang D, Han R. A systematic review of the berberine in protecting kidneys of diabetic rats. China J Tradit Chin Med Pharm (Chin) 2013;1622–1626.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang JY, Tian GH, Zhang L, Mou W, Du L, Chen YL, et al. Systematic reviews of traditional Chinese medicine/current investigation of meta-analysis. J Lanzhou Univ (Med Sci, Chin) 2016;42:48–54.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu JP, Mcintosh H, Lin H. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;7:CD001940.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Manheimer E, Windt Dvd, Udoff L, Haramati A, Langenberg P, Berman BM, et al. Effects of adjuvant acupuncture on pregnancy rates among women undergoing in vitro fertilization: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2008;336:545–549.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fan WX, Zhong S, Liu F, Ye XF, Tu X, Huang SM. Astragalus combined with renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-inhibiting therapy for albuminuria in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. PROSPERO 2011: CRD42011001508. Available at: ID=CRD42011001508.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chung VC, Wu X, Lu P, Hui EP, Zhang Y, Zhang AL, et al. Chinese herbal medicine for symptom management in cancer palliative care: systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015023931. Available at: Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lau CH, Wu X, Chung VC, Liu X, Hui EP, Cramer H, et al. Acupuncture and related therapy for symptom management in palliative cancer care: systematic review and metaanalysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e2901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Qin ZS. Acupuncture for sciatica: a systematic review. PROSPERO 2014 CRD42014015001 Available at: php?ID=CRD42014015001.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Li X, Han M, Wang Y, Liu J. Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Clin Rheumatol 2013;32:943–959.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Luo J, Song W, Yang G, Xu H, Chen K. Compound Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) Dripping Pill for coronary heart disease: an overview of systematic reviews. Am J Chin Med 2015;43:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shneerson C, Taskila T, Gale N, Greenfield S, Chen YF. The effect of complementary and alternative medicine on the quality of life of cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Complement Ther Med 2013;21:417–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chung VC, Wu XY, Hui EP, Ziea ET, Ng BF, Ho RS, et al. Effectiveness and safety of adjuvant Chinese herbal medicine for cancer palliative care: overview of metaanalyses. PROSPERO 2015 CRD42015016171. Available at: php?ID=CRD42015016171.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wu X, Chung VC, Hui EP, Ziea ET, Ng BF, Ho RS, et al. Effectiveness of acupuncture and related therapies for cancer palliative care: overview of systematic reviews. Sci Rep 2015;5:16776.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cheong KB, Zhang JP, Huang Y. The effectiveness of acupuncture in postoperative gastroparesis syndrome and postoperative ileus: a systematic review and metaanalysis. PROSPERO 2013 CRD42013005485. Available at: php?ID=CRD42013005485.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yang G, Wang Y, Xia Y, Tian J, Liu J. Huperzine A preparation for Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PROSPERO 2012 CRD42012003249. Available at: Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ni X, Liu S, Lu F, Guo X, Shi X. Tai chi for Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO 2013 CRD42013004989. Available at: Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ernst E. Adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines with synthetic drugs: a systematic review. J Intern Med 2002;252:107–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ernst E. Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:923–929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ernst E. Adverse effects of unconventional therapies in the elderly: A systematic review of the recent literature. J Am Aging Assoc 2002;25:11–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ernst E, Thompson CJ. Heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicines: a systematic review. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001;70:497–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fugh-Berman A, Ernst E. Herb–drug interactions: review and assessment of report reliability. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001;52:587–595.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ernst E. Serious adverse effects of unconventional therapies for children and adolescents: a systematic review of recent evidence. Eur J Pediatr 2003;162:72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    LI TQ, Liu XM, Zhang MM, Du L, Zhou YD, Chang J, et al. Assessment of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on traditional Chinese medicine published in Chinese journals. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2007;7:180–188.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chang YP. The quality of meta analysis and research related to medicine. J Prac Tradit Chin Inter Med (Chin) 2014;28:8–9.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wei ML, Liu M, Wei S. The current status on systematic reviews/meta-analysis in Chinese publications from 1990-2007. West China Med J (Chin) 2007;22:697–698.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dan HU, Kang DY, Wu YX. Methodological quality assessment of systematic reviews correlated to traditional Chinese medicine published in China. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med (Chin) 2011;31:402–406.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Liu JP, Xia Y. Quality appraisal of systematic reviews or metaanalysis on traditional Chinese medicine published in Chinese journals. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med (Chin) 2007;27:306–311.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Spence D. Evidence based medicine is broken. BMJ 2014;348:G22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Institute of Medicine. Clinical practice guidelines we can trust. Washington: The National Academies Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, China Association for Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Evidence-based guidelines of clinical practice in Chinese medicine: acupuncture. Beijing: China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2011:19–142.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Evidencebased guidelines of clinical practice in Chinese medicine: Internal Medicine. Beijing: China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2011:1–434.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Evidencebased guidelines of clinical practice in Chinese medicine: specific disease. Beijing: China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine;2011:1-148.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ya Y, Han X, Zhang H, Wang LY, Shi NN, Wang YY, et al. Study on quality assessment of TCM clinical practice guidelines based on AGREE instrument. World Sci Tech Modern Tradit Chin Med Mater Med (Chin) 2011;13:596–600.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shi NN, Han XJ, Ya Y, Liu YQ, Wang YX, Wang LY, et al. Method of applicable adaptation of clinical practice guidelines and its inspiration on Chinese medicine clinical practice guidelines. Chin J Tradit Chin Med Pharm (Chin) 2014;10:3166–3169.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wang LY, Zhao XY, Yu WY, Liu YQ, Wang YX, Liu MY, et al. Comparison of clinical practice guidelines with clinical pathways and diagnosis & treatment schemes in Chinese medicine. J Tradit Chin Med (Chin) 2015;56:2112–2115.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zhao WT. Construction of "healthy China", fast pace of Chinese medicine. Available from: html.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen YL, Yang KH, Yao L, Tian JH, Bai ZG, Ma B. The development of GRADE systematic methodology. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2013;8:1–2.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Planning and Finance Department of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The number of higher traditional Chinese medicine colleges, the number of higher institutions of Western medicine. Non-medical college in China In 2014. of Chinese Medicine Statistics /atog/2014/C01.html.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Developing and Planning Department of the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. Colleges and Universities set. Scholar
  87. 87.
    The Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China (MOE). 2015 National Statistic for Institutions of Higher Education. html.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jin C, Liu GJ, LI J, Li W. A survey of evidence-based medicine teaching in China. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2005;5:955–957.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Geng JS, Dong JC, Ni HJ. Impact of evidence-based medicine curriculum on medical students in China: a systematic review approach. China Higher Med Ed (Chin) 2012;3:43–45.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    MA L, Jiang JG, Yu SX. Analysis of the perception level of clinicians on EBM. Modern Prev Med (Chin) 2008;35:2617–2619.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dong BR, Ding QF. Investigating the awareness and application of EBM in the clinical practice. West China Med J (Chin) 2000;15:125–127.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Liu B. A primary survey of evidence-based medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Chin J Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2004;19:44–49.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shang HC, Zhang BL. Country-led, multi-stakeholder involvement, and jointly promote the overall level of CM clinical research. Chin Evid-Based Med (Chin) 2010;10:640–641.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shang HC, Zhang BL, Wang YY. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine needs "a breakthrough". Tianjin J Tradit Chin Med (Chin) 2013;30:4–5.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Brouwers MC, Kho ME, Browman GP, Burgers JS, Cluzeau F, Feder G, et al. AGREE II: advancing guideline development, reporting and evaluation in health care. J Clin Epidemiol 2010;63:1308–1311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schünemann HJ, Wiercioch W, Etxeandia I, Falavigna M, Santesso N, Mustafa R, et al. Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise. CMAJ 2014;186:123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chen Y, Yang K, Marušic A, Qaseem A, Meerpohl JJ, Flottorp S, et al. A reporting tool for practice guidelines in health care: The RIGHT statement. Ann Intern Med 2017;166:128–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yao-long Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Chen Zhao
    • 5
  • Li Zhang
    • 6
  • Bo Li
    • 7
  • Chuan-hong Wu
    • 8
  • Wei Mu
    • 6
  • Jia-ying Wang
    • 9
  • Ke-hu Yang
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • You-ping Li
    • 10
  • Chiehfeng Chen
    • 11
  • Yong-yan Wang
    • 12
  • Chen Wang
    • 13
  • Zhao-xiang Bian
    • 5
  • Hong-cai Shang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education, Dongzhimen HospitalBeijing University of Chinese MedicineBeijingChina
  2. 2.Evidence Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Evidence Based Medicine and Knowledge Translation of Gansu ProvinceLanzhouChina
  4. 4.Chinese GRADE CenterLanzhouChina
  5. 5.China School of Chinese MedicineHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong Kong SARChina
  6. 6.Department of Clinical PharmacologySecond Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese MedicineTianjinChina
  7. 7.Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese MedicineCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  8. 8.State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical SciencesUniversity of MacauMacaoChina
  9. 9.Department of Acupuncture and MoxibustionWuxi People’s HospitalJiangsuChina
  10. 10.Chinese Cochrane Centre, West China HospitalSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  11. 11.Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Wan Fang HospitalTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiChina
  12. 12.Institute of Basic Research in Clinical MedicineChina Academy of Chinese Medical SciencesBeijingChina
  13. 13.Department of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineChina-Japan Friendship HospitalBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations