In the last two decades, improvements in materials, sensors and machine learning technologies have led to a rapid extension of electronic nose (EN) related research topics with diverse applications. The food and beverage industry, agriculture and forestry, medicine and health-care, indoor and outdoor monitoring, military and civilian security systems are the leading fields which take great advantage from the rapidity, stability, portability and compactness of ENs. Although the EN technology provides numerous benefits, further enhancements in both hardware and software components are necessary for utilizing ENs in practice. This paper provides an extensive survey of the EN technology and its wide range of application fields, through a comprehensive analysis of algorithms proposed in the literature, while exploiting related domains with possible future suggestions for this research topic.
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The authors are thankful to Betul Arslan, Dentist, for fruitful discussions about dental health-care, which lead to innovative ideas.
Recommended by Associate Editor Jyh-Horng Chon
Diclehan Karakaya received the B. Sc. degree (with high honors) in electrical and electronics engineering from Izmir University of Economics, Turkey in 2017. She is currently a master student in electrical and electronics engineering at Izmir University of Economics, Turkey.
Her research interests include image processing, computer vision, machine learning and artificial intelligence.
Oguzhan Ulucan received the B. Sc. degree (with honors) in electrical and electronics engineering from Izmir University of Economics, Turkey in 2017. He is currently a master student in electrical and electronics engineering at Izmir University of Economics, Turkey.
His research interests include image processing, computer vision, machine learning and artificial intelligence.
Mehmet Turkan received the B. Sc. (Hhons) degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey in 2004, received the M. Sc. degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Bilkent University, Turkey in 2007. He received the Ph. D. degree in computer science from Bretagne Atlantique Research Center (INRIA) and University of Rennes 1, France in 2011. He is currently an assistant professor of electrical and electronics engineering at the Faculty of Engineering, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey. From January 2013 to July 2015, he was a full-time researcher at Technicolor Research & Innovation Center, Cesson-Sevigne, France, where he was a post-doctoral researcher between November 2011 and December 2012. He was involved with the European Commission (EC) 6th Framework Program (FP6) Multimedia Understanding through Semantics, Computation and Learning Network of Excellence (MUSCLE-NoE), EC FP6 Integrated Three-Dimensional Television-Capture, Transmission, and Display Network of Excellence (3-DTV-NoE), and European UltraHD-4U research projects. He was the recipient of the HUAWEI Best Student Paper Award in the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE-ICIP) and was a nominee for the Best Student Paper Award in the 2011 IEEE-ICIP.
His research interests include signal processing with an emphasis on image and video processing and compression, pattern recognition and classification, computer vision, machine learning and artificial intelligence.
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Karakaya, D., Ulucan, O. & Turkan, M. Electronic Nose and Its Applications: A Survey. Int. J. Autom. Comput. 17, 179–209 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11633-019-1212-9
- Artificial intelligence
- machine learning
- pattern recognition
- electronic nose (EN)
- sensors technology