Skip to main content
Log in

Carbon stock measurements of a degraded tropical logged-over secondary forest in Manokwari Regency, West Papua, Indonesia

Forestry Studies in China


Several studies have been conducted in the past on carbon stock measurements in the tropical forests of Indonesia. This study is the first related research conducted in the New Guinea Island. In a degraded logged-over secondary forest in Manokwari Regency (West Papua, Indonesia), carbon stocks were measured for seven parts, i.e., above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB), under-storey biomass (B u), necromass of dead leaves (N l), necromass of dead trees (N t), litter (L) and soil (S) using appropriate equations and laboratory analysis. Total carbon stocks were measured at 642.8 tC·ha−1 in the low disturbance area, 536.9 tC·ha−1 in the moderate disturbance area and 490.4 tC·ha−1 in the high disturbance area. B u, N l and N t were not significant in the carbon stock and were collectively categorized as a total biomass complex. The carbon stock of litter was nearly equal to that of the total biomass complex, while the total carbon stock in the soil was eight times larger than the total biomass complex or the carbon stock of the litter. We confirmed that the average ratio of AGB and BGB to the total biomass (TB) was about 84.7% and 15.3%, respectively. Improvements were made to the equations in the low disturbance logged-over secondary forest area, applying corrections to the amounts of biomass of sample trees, based on representative commercial trees of category one. TB stocks before and after correction were estimated to be 84.4 and 106.7 tC·ha−1, indicating that these corrections added significant amounts of tree biomass (26.4%) during the sampling procedure. In conclusion, the equations for tree biomass developed in this study, will be useful for evaluating total carbon stocks, especially TB stocks in logged-over secondary forests throughout the Papua region.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions


  • Adinugraha W C. 2009. Biomass Allometric equations and Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) of Vegetation in Secondary Forest ex Burning at PT INHUTANI I Batu Ampar, East Kalimantan. Forestry Info, Center of Research and Development Forestry and Natural Conservation (unpublished)

  • Basuki T M, van Laake P E, Skidmore A K, Hussin Y A. 2009. Allometric equationss for estimating the above-ground biomass in tropical lowland Dipterocarp forests. Forest Ecol Manage, 257: 1684–1694

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boer R, Wasrin U R, Perdinan, Hendri, Dasanto B D, Makundi W, Hero J, Ridwan M, Masripatin N. 2007. Assessment of carbon leakage in multiple carbon-sink projects: a case study in Jambi Province, Indonesia. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change, 12: 1169–1188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown S. 1997. Estimating Bio mass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: a Primer. Rome: FAO, 87

    Google Scholar 

  • Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics (BMG) Manokwari. 2007. Climate Report. Manokwari: BMG, 72

    Google Scholar 

  • Cairns M A, Brown S, Helmer E H, Baumgardner G A. 1997. Root biomass a llocation in the world’s upland forests. Oecologia, 111: 1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chambers J Q, Dos Santos J, Ribeiro R J, Higuchi N. 2001. Tree damage, allometric relationship, and above-ground net primary production in central Amazon forest. Forest Ecol Manage, 152: 73–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chave J, Andalo C, Brown S, Cairns M A, Chambers J Q, Eamus D, Folster H, Fromard F, Higuchi N, Kira T, Lescure J P, Nelson B W, Ogawa H, Puig H, Riera B, Yamakura T. 2005. Tree allometry an d improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia, 145: 87–99

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Conn B J, Lee L L, Damas K. 2006. Guide of trees of Papua New Guinea, (

  • Dewi S, Khasanah N, Rahayu S, Ekadinata A, van Noordwijk M. 2009. Carbon Footprint of Indonesian Palm Oil Production: a Pilot Study. Bogor, Indonesia. World Agroforestry Centre-ICRAF, SEA Regional Office, 8

  • Emery C, Tai E, Yarwood G. 2001. Enhanced Meteorological Modeling and Performance Evaluation for Two Texas Ozone Episodes, report to the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission, prepared by ENVIRON, International Corp, Novato, CA

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO. 2006. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management. Rome: FAO, 147

    Google Scholar 

  • Hertel D, Moser G, Culmsee H, Erasmi S, Horna V, Schuldt B, Leuschner C. 2009. Below- and above-g round biomass and net primary production in a paleotropical natural forest (Sulawesi, Indonesia) as compared to neotropical forests. Forest Ecol Manage, 258: 1904–1912

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirasutka M, Tomo T, Mindawati N, Heriansyah I, Morikawa Y. 2005. Biomass of a man-made forest of timber tree species in the humid tropics of West Java, Indonesia. Jpn Forest Soc, 10: 487–491

    Google Scholar 

  • IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland, 104

  • Jainicke J, Rieley J O, Mott C, Kimman P, Siegert F. 2008. Determination of the amount of carbon stored in Indonesian peatlands. Geoderma, 147: 151–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keller M, Palace M, Hurtt G. 2001. Biomass estimation in the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil examination of sampling and allometric uncertainties. Forest Ecol Manage, 154: 371–382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ketterings Q M, Coe R, Van Noordwijk M, Ambagau Y, Palm C A. 2001. Reducing uncertainty in the use of allometric biomass equations for predicting aboveground tree biomass in mixed secondary forests. Forest Ecol Manage, 146: 199–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kiyono Y, Hastaniah. 1997. Slash-and-burn agriculture and succeeding vegetation in East Kalimantan. PUSREHUT Spec Publ, Vol.6, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia

    Google Scholar 

  • Komiyama A, Ong J E, Poungparn S. 2008. Allometry, biomass, and productivity of mangrove forests: A review. Aquat Bot, 89: 128–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ludang Y, Jaya H P. 2007. Biomass and carbon content in tropical forest of central Kalimantan. Appl Sci Environm Sanitation, 2(1): 7–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Manokwari Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology. 2009. Annual Report 2009. Manokwari, Papua Barat, 210

    Google Scholar 

  • MoF. 2003. Classifying Types of Wood as a Basis for Contribution Budget from Forestry Sector. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia

    Google Scholar 

  • Mo F. 2009. Remote Sensing Database of 2000 and 2006 in Papua. Directorate of Spatial Data Network. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia

    Google Scholar 

  • Morikawa Y, Ohta S, Hiratsuka M, Toma T. 2002. Carbon Sequestration of Man-Made Forest: Sequestration Estimate and Its Bearing on CDM. Proceedings International Symposium on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Monitoring, Taipei, 171–180

  • Niiyama K, Kajimoto T, Matsuura Y, Yamashita T, Matsuo N, Yashiro Y, Ripin A, Kassim A R, Noor N S. 2010. Estimation of root biomass based on excavation of individual root systems in a primary Dipterocarp forest in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. Trop Ecol, 26: 271–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohta S, Morisada K, Tanaka N, Kiyono Y, Effendi S. 2000. Are Soils in Degraded Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems Deteriorated? A Comparison of Imperata Grasslands, Degraded Secondary Forests and Primary Forest in Rainforest Ecosystem of East Kalimantan: El Nino, Drought, Fire and Human Impacts. Ecological Studies, Vol.140, Tokyo: Springer-Verlag

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearson T, Walker S, Brown S. 2005. Sourcebook for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Projects. Bio Carbon Fund and Winrock International Institute, 64

  • Rahayu S, Lusiana B, van Noordwijk M. 2005. Aboveground Stock Carbon Assessment For Various Land Use Systems in Nunukan, East Kalimantan. ICAFT, SEA Regional Office, Bogor, Indonesia, 21–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Ravindranath N H, Ostwald M. 2008. Carbon Inventory Method: Han dbook of Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects. Springer Science, 305

  • Sihite J, Lense O N, Suratri R, Gustiar C, Kosamah S. 2005. Bintuny Bay Nature Reserve Management Plan 2006–2030. Collaboration Department of Forestry in Sorong and The Nature Conservancy, 252

  • Statistic Bureau of Manokwari. 2008. Manokwari Statistic in 2008. Manokwari: Statistic Bureau of Manokwari, 230

    Google Scholar 

  • Tateda Y, Imamura M, Ishi T. 2005. Estimation of CO2 Sequestration Rate by Mangrove Ecosystem. Annual Research Report/Central Research Institute of Electric, 2005, 32–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Tesche T W, McNally D E, Morris R E, Emery C. 2001. Evaluation of CAMx and Models-3/CMAQ over the Lower Lake Michigan Region with Inputs from the RAMS3c and MM5 Models. the Coordinating Research Council, Alpine Geophysics, Wright, KY

    Google Scholar 

  • Tresnawan H, Rosalina U. 2002. Estimating aboveground biomass in the primary and logged-over forest ecosystem: case study Dusun Aro Forest, Jambi. Manage Trop Forest, 8(1): 15–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Wetland International. 2006. Maps of Peatland Distribution, Area, and Carbon Content in Papua. Wetland International — Indonesia Programme, 14

  • Winrock International Institute. 1997. A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agroforestry Projects. Forest Carbon Monitoring Program, Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, 91

  • World Agroforestry Center. 2008. Wood Density Database. World Agroforestry Center-South East Asia, Agroforestry tree database

  • Yamakura T, Hagihara A, Sukardjo S, Ogawa H. 1986. Above-ground biomass of tropical rainforest stands in Indonesian Borneo. Vegetatio, 68: 71–82

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoneda T, Ogino K, Kohyama T, Tamin R, Syahbubbin, Rahman M. 1994. Horizontal variance of stand structure and productivity in a tropical foothill rain forest, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Tropics, 4: 17–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hendri.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hendri, Yamashita, T., Kuntoro, A.A. et al. Carbon stock measurements of a degraded tropical logged-over secondary forest in Manokwari Regency, West Papua, Indonesia. For. Stud. China 14, 8–19 (2012).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words