Skip to main content

A study of groundwater irrigation water quality in south-central Bangladesh: a geo-statistical model approach using GIS and multivariate statistics

Abstract

Southern Bangladesh’s irrigation and drinking water is threatened by saline intrusion. This study aimed to establish an irrigation water quality index (IWQI) using a geostatistical model and multivariate indices in Gopalganj district, south-central Bangladesh. Groundwater samples were taken randomly (different depths) in two seasons (wet-monsoon and dry-monsoon). Hydrochemical analysis revealed groundwater in this area was neutral to slightly alkaline and dominating cations were Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ along with major anions Cl and HCO3 . Principal component analysis and Gibbs plot helped explain possible geochemical processes in the aquifer. The irrigation water evaluation indices showed: electrical conductivity (EC) >750 µS/cm, moderate to extreme saline; sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), excellent to doubtful; total hardness (TH), moderate to very hard; residual sodium bicarbonate, safe to marginal; Kelly’s ratio >1; soluble sodium percentage (SSP), fair to poor; magnesium adsorption ratio, harmful for soil; and IWQI, moderate to suitable. In addition, the best fitted semivariogram for IWQI, EC, SAR, SSP, and TH confirmed that most parameters had strong spatial dependence and others had moderate to weak spatial dependence. This variation might be due to the different origin/sources of major contributing ions along with the influence of variable river flow and small anthropogenic contributions. Furthermore, the spatial distribution maps for IWQI, EC, SSP, and TH during both seasons confirmed the influence of salinity from the sea; low-flow in the major river system was the driving factor of overall groundwater quality in the study area. These findings may contribute to management of irrigation and/or drinking water in regions with similar groundwater problems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  • Agca N, Karanlık S, Odemis B (2014) Assessment of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater from Amik Plain, southern Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 186:5921–5934

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. APHA, AWWA and WEF, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashraf M, Afzal M, Ahmad R, Ali S (2011) Growth and yield components of wheat genotypes as influenced by potassium and farm yard manure on a saline sodic soil. Soil Environ 30:115–121

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture, FAO irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 Rev. I, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome

  • Bahar MM, Reza MS (2010) Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in a coastal area of Southwest Bangladesh. Environ Earth Sci 6:1065–1073

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • BBS (2011) Bangladesh bureau of statistics and information division, ministry of the people republic of Bangladesh

  • BGS, DPHE (2001) Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh. British Geologic Survey, Keyworth

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhuiyan MAH, Parvez L, Islam MA, Dampare SB, Suzuki S (2010) Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 179:1065–1077

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bodrud-Doza M, Islam ARMT, Ahmed F, Das S, Saha N, Rahman MS (2016) Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh. Water Sci 30(1):19–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bozdag A (2015) Combining AHP with GIS for assessment of irrigation water quality in C, umrairrigation district (Konya), Central Anatolia, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 73:8217–8236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burrough PA, McDonnell RA (1998) Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 333

    Google Scholar 

  • Charbeneau RJ (2000) Groundwater hydraulics and pollutant transport. Waveland Press, Long Grove

    Google Scholar 

  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (2014) Bangladesh integrated water resources assessment: final report. CSIRO, BIDS, BWDB, CEGIS, IWM, WARPO

  • Deepali M, Malpe DB, Zade AB (2011) Geochemical characterization of groundwater from northeastern part of Nagpur urban, Central India. Environ Earth Sci 62:1419–1430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delhomme JP (1978) Kriging in the hydrosciences. Adv Water Res 1:251–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doneen LD (1964) Notes on water quality in agriculture. Published as a water science and engineering, Paper 4001, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, University of California

  • Eaton FM (1950) Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci 62(2):123–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Erguvanli K, Yuzer E (1987) Groundwater geology (hydrogeology). ITU Maden Fakültesi, Istanbul, p 339 (in Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  • ESRI (2009) ArcGIS desktop software. ArcGIS Desktop 9.3, Redlands

  • Faneca Sanchez M, Bashar K, Janssen GMCM, Vogels M, Snel J, Zhou Y, Stuurman R, Dude Essink GHP (2015) SWIBANGLA: managing salt water intrusion impacts in coastal groundwater systems of Bangladesh, 153

  • FAO/UNDP (1985) Report on tidal area study fisheries resources survey system FAO/UNDP-BGD/79/015 April 1985. http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC352E/AC352E00.htm

  • Ferguson G, Gleeson T (2012) Vulnerability of coastal aquifers to groundwater use and climate change. Nat Clim Change 2:342–345

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foster SSD (1995) Groundwater for development—an overview of quality constraints. In: Nash H, McCall GJH (eds) Groundwater quality. 17th Special Report. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 1–3

  • Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanisms controlling worlds water chemistry. Science 170:1088–1090

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resource evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Gorai AK, Kumar S (2013) Spatialdistribution analysis of groundwater quality index using GIS: a case study of Ranchi Municipal Corporation (RMC) area. GeoinfoGeostat Overv 1:2

    Google Scholar 

  • Green TR, Taniguchi M, Kooi H, Gurdak JJ, Allen DM, Hiscock KM, Treidel H, Aureli A (2011) Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater. J Hydrol 405:532–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta SK (1983) Variations of water table in Yamuna drainage basin of Haryana-implications and management strategies. Paper presented at the Seminar on Strategies for Irrigation Water Management, Patna

  • Halim MA, Majumder RK, Nessa SA, Hiroshiro Y, Sasaki K, Saha BB, Saepuloh A, Jinno K (2010) Evaluation of processes controlling the geochemical constituents in deep groundwater in Bangladesh: spatial variability on arsenic and boron enrichment. J Hazard Mater 180:50–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haritash AK, Kaushik CP (2008) Suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation andindustrial use in some North Indian villages. Environ Monit Assess 145:397–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IIASA (2013) Report. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/resources/publications/annual-report/ar13.pdf

  • Irabar A, Sanchez Perez JM, Lyautey E, Garabetian F (2008) Differentiated free living and sediment attached bacterial community structure inside and outside desertification hotspots in the river–groundwater interface. Hydrobiologia 598:109–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Islam MA, Zahid A, Rahman MM, Rahman MS, Shammi M et al (2017) Investigation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the south central part of the coastal region in Bangladesh. J Expo Health 9(1):27–41. doi:10.1007/s12403-016-0220-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jalali M (2009) Phosphorous concentration, solubility and species in the groundwater in a semi-arid basin, southern Malayer, western Iran. Environ Geol 57:1011–1020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jalali M (2011a) Nitrate pollution of groundwater in Toyserkan, western Iran. Environ Earth Sci 62:907–913

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jalali M (2011b) Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Nahavand, Western Iran. Nat Resour Res 20(1):65–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang Y, Wu Y, Groves C, Yuan D, Kambeis P (2009) Natural and anthropogenic Factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Nandongkarst Underground river systeminYunan, China. J ContamHydrol 109:49–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser HF (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educ Physiol Meas 20:141–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelley WP (1940) Permissible composition and concentration of irrigated waters. Proc ASCF 66:607

    Google Scholar 

  • Konikow LF, Kendy E (2005) Groundwater depletion: a global problem. Hydrogeol J 13:317–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar PS (2014) Evolution of groundwater chemistry in and around Vaniyambadi industrial area: differentiating the natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination. Chem Erde Geochem 74(4):641–665

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar M, Kumari K, Ramanathan AL, Saxena R (2007) A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India. Environ Geol 53:553–574

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumari S, Singh AK, Verma AK, Yaduvanshi NPS (2013) Assessment and spatial distribution of groundwater quality in industrial areas of Ghaziabad, India. Environ Monit Assess 186(1):501–514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu SX, Hermanowicz SW, Peng M (2003) Nitrate removal from drinking water through the use of encapsulated microorganisms in alginate beads. Environ Technol 24:1129–1134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marko K, Al-Amri NS, Elfeki AMM (2014) Geostatistical analysis using GIS for mapping groundwater quality: case study in the recharge area of WadiUsfan, western Saudi Arabia. Arab J Geosci 7:5239–5252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Masoud AA (2014) Groundwater quality assessment of the shallow aquifers west of the Nile Delta (Egypt) using multivariate statistical and geostatistical techniques. J Afr Earth Sci 95:123–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nayanaka VGD, Vitharana WAU, Mapa RB (2010) Geostatistical analysis of soil properties to support spatial sampling in a paddy growing Alfisol. Trop Agric Res 22:34–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piper AM (1944) A graphical procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. Trans Am Geophys Union 25:914–928

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raghunath HM (1987) Groundwater. Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MATMT, Saadat AHM, Islam MS, Al-Mansur MA, Ahmed S (2017) Groundwater characterization and selection of suitable water type for irrigation in the western region of Bangladesh. Appl Water Sci 7(1):233–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MATMT, Rahman SH, Majumder RK (2012) Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh. Songklanakarin J SciTechnol 34:345–352

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MM, Sultana R, Shammi M, Bikash J, Ahmed T, Maruo M, Kurasaki M, Uddin MK (2016) Assessment of the status of groundwater arsenic at SingairUpazila, Manikganj Bangladesh; exploring the correlation with other metals and ions. Expo Health 8(2):217–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raju NJ (2007) Hydrogeochemical parameters for assessmentof groundwater quality in the upper Gunjanaeru River basin, Cuddapah District, Andhara Pradesh, South India. Environ Geol 52:1067–1074

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. US Department of Agriculture Hand Book, Washington, p 60

    Google Scholar 

  • Richards LA (1968) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agricultural hand book 60, USDA and IBH. Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 98–99

    Google Scholar 

  • Romanelli A, Lima ML, Londono OMQ, Martinez DE, Massone HE (2012) A Gis-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the Wet Pampa Plain, Argentina. Environ Manag 50:490–503

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saleh A, Al-Ruwaih F, Shehata M (1999) Hydrogeochemical processes operating within the main aquifers of Kuwait. J Arid Envir 42:195–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sawyer CN, Mccarty PL (1967) Chemistry for sanitary engineers, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York, p 518

    Google Scholar 

  • Shahid S, Chen X, Hazarika MK (2006) Evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation in Bangladesh using geographic information system. J Hydrol Hydromech 54:3–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Shahid SU, Iqbal J, Hasnain J (2014) Groundwater quality assessment and its correlation with gastroenteritis using GIS: a case study of Rawal Town, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 186:7525–7537

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shammi M, Bhuiya GMJA, Ibne KAK, Rahman MR, Rahman MM, Uddin MK (2012) Investigation of salinity occurrences in Kumar–Madhumati River of Gopalganj District, Bangladesh. J Nat Sci Sustain Technol 6:299–313

    Google Scholar 

  • Shammi M, KarmakarB Rahman MM, Islam MS, Rahman R, Uddin MK (2016a) Assessment of salinity hazard of irrigation water quality in monsoon season of Batiaghata Upazila, Khulna District, Bangladesh and adaptation strategies. Pollution 2:183–197

    Google Scholar 

  • Shammi M, Rahman R, Rahman MM, Moniruzzaman M, Bodrud-Doza M, Karmakar B, Uddin MK (2016b) Assessment of salinity hazard in existing water resources for irrigation and potentiality of conjunctive uses: a case report from Gopalganj District. Bangladesh. Sustain Water Resour Manag 2(4):369–378

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shammi M, Rahman MM, Islam MA, Bodrud-Doza M, Zahid A, Akter Y, Quaiyum S, Kurasaki M (2017) Spatio-temporal assessment and trend analysis of surface water salinity in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(16):14273–14290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sikder MT, Kihara Y, Yasuda M, Mihara Y, Tanaka S, Odgerel D et al (2013) River water pollution in developed and developing countries: judge and Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and selected dissolved metal concentration. CLEAN Soil Air Water 41(1):60–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simsek C, Gunduz O (2007) IWQ Index: a GIS-integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality. Environ Monit Assess 128:277–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh PK, Tiwari AK, Panigarhy BP, Mahato MK (2013) Water quality indices used for water resources vulnerability assessment using GIS technique: a review. Int J Earth Sci and Eng 6:1594–1600

    Google Scholar 

  • SRDI (1998) Coastal area and water salinity map of Bangladesh 1967 and 1997. Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI), Dhaka

    Google Scholar 

  • Subba RN (1998) Groundwater quality in crystalline terrain of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam. Visakha Sci J 2:51–54

    Google Scholar 

  • Sundaray SK, Nayak BB, Bhatta D (2009) Environmental studies on river water quality with reference to suitability for agricultural purposes. Mahanadi river estuarine system, India—a case study. Environ Monit Assess 155:227–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tapoglou E, Karatzas GP, Trichakis JC, Varouchakis EA (2014) Aspatio-temporal hybrid neural network-Kriging model for groundwater level simulation. J Hydrol 519:3193–3203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor RG, Scanlon B, Döll P, Rodell M, Van Beek R, Wada Y, Longuevergne L, Leblanc M, Famiglietti JS, Edmunds M, Konikow L (2013) Groundwater and climate change. Nat Clim Change 3(4):322–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiwari AK, Singh PK, Mahato MK (2014) GIS-Based Evaluation of Water Quality Index of groundwater resources in west Bokaro Coalfield, India. Curr World Environ 9(3):73–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Todd DK (1980) Groundwater hydrology. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Varouchakis EA, Hristopulos DT (2013) Improvement of groundwater level prediction in sparsely gaugedbasins using physical laws and local geographic features as auxiliary variables. Adv Water Res 52:34–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vasanthavigar M, Srinivasamoorthy K, Rajiv Ganthi R, Vijayaraghavan K, Sarma LS (2012) Characterisation and quality assessment of groundwater with a special emphasis on irrigation utility: thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Arab J Geosci 5(2):245–258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vyas A, Jethoo AS (2015) Diversification in measurement methods for determination of irrigation water quality parameters. Aquat Procedia 4:1220–1226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webster R, Oliver MA (2001) Geostatistics for environmental scientists. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner AD, Simmons CT (2009) Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Groundwater 47:197–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilcox LV (1955) Classification and use of irrigation waters. Circular 969. USDA, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization (WHO) (1997) Guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva 1:53–73

    Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2007) WHO country cooperation strategy 2008–2013: Bangladesh. WHO Country Office for Bangladesh, Dhaka. http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccs_bgd_en.pdf. Accessed 16 April 2017

  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2017) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: first addendum to the fourth edition. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254636/1/9789241550017-eng.pdf?ua=1. Access 16 April 2017

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the project entitled “Establishment of monitoring network and mathematical model study to assess salinity intrusion in groundwater in the coastal area of Bangladesh due to climate change” implemented by Bangladesh Water Development Board and sponsored by Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund, Ministry of Environment and Forest. The authors would like to thank BCSIR and BUET laboratory officials for their cordial support.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Md. Mostafizur Rahman.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

This is an original manuscript that has not been submitted elsewhere for publication. All authors have read the manuscript and agreed that the work is ready for submission to the journal with no conflict of interest. Md. Mostafizur Rahman will receive correspondence.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Bodrud-Doza, M. et al. A study of groundwater irrigation water quality in south-central Bangladesh: a geo-statistical model approach using GIS and multivariate statistics. Acta Geochim 37, 193–214 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-017-0201-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-017-0201-3

Keywords

  • Semivariogram
  • Ordinary kriging model
  • Salinity
  • Irrigation water quality index
  • GIS
  • Hydrochemistry