Future high-power-density engines require high level of intake boost. However, the effects of boosting on mixing, combustion and emissions in existing studies are inconsistent. In this paper, the mixing, combustion and emission characteristics with intake pressures of 100–400 kPa at low, medium and high loads are studied. The results show that the increase of intake pressures is conducive to the enhancement of air entrainment, while the air utilization ratios are reduced, thus requiring injection pressure to be optimized to effectively improve the mixing. For the intake pressures of 100 kPa, the average chemical reaction path is low-temperature reaction route, while the path of higher intake pressures is dominated by high-temperature pyrolysis. For soot emissions, when the equivalence ratio is lower than 0.175, the oxygen in the cylinder is sufficient, so the effect of temperature decrease is more significant, which leads to the increase of soot emissions with the increase of intake pressures. Otherwise, the effect of increasing oxygen concentration is more significant, so soot decreases accordingly. When the peak of global temperature is lower than 1800 K, the effect of the increase of oxygen concentration is more dominant, so the NOx emission increases with the increase of intake pressures. Otherwise, the rule of NOx emissions is consistent with temperature changes.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
adaptive mesh refinement
after top dead center
crank angle corresponding to the 10% of the total heat release
crank angle corresponding to the 50% of the total heat release
computational fluid dynamic
exhaust gas recirculation
exhaust valve opening
homogeneous charge compression ignition
heat release rate
intake valve closing
indicated mean effective pressure
low temperature combustion
- NOx :
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
primary reference fuel
representative exothermic reactions
start of injection
- T :
top dead center
- ρ a :
- φ :
Zheng Z., Feng H., Mao B., Liu H., Yao M., A theoretical and experimental study on the effects of parameters of two-stage turbocharging system on performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2018, 129: 822–832.
Ostrowski G., Neely G.D., Chadwell C.J., Mehta D., Wetzel P., Downspeeding and supercharging a diesel passenger car for increased fuel economy. SAE Technical Paper, 2012, 2012-01-0704.
Hashimoto M., Aoyagi Y., Kobayashi M., Murayama T., Goto Y., Suzuki H., BSFC improvement and NOx reduction by sequential turbo system in a heavy duty diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper, 2012, 2012-01-0712, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0712.
Liu H., Ma S., Zhang Z., Zheng Z., Yao M., Study of the control strategies on soot reduction under early-injection conditions on a diesel engine. Fuel, 2015, 139: 472–481.
Zama Y., Ochiai W., Sugawara K., Furuhata T., Arai M., Study on mixing process of diesel spray under high ambient gas density condition. Atomization and Sprays, 2013, 23(5): 443–461.
Zama Y., Ochiai W., Furuhata T., Arai M., Experimental study on spray angle and velocity distribution of diesel spray under high ambient pressure conditions. Atomization and Sprays, 2011, 21(12): 989–1007.
Desantes J.M., Benajes J., Garcia-Oliver J.M., Kolodziej C.P., Effects of intake pressure on particle size and number emissions from premixed diesel low-temperature combustion. International Journal of Engine Research, 2013, 15(2): 222–235.
Liu H., Ma J., Tong L., Ma G., Zheng Z., Yao M., Investigation on the potential of high efficiency for internal combustion engines. Energies, 2018, 11(3): 513.
Kennaird D.A., Crua C., Lacoste J., Heikal M.R., Gold M.R., Jackson N.S., In-cylinder penetration and break-up of diesel sprays using a common-rail injection system. SAE Technical Paper, 2002, 2002-01-1626.
Chen B., Feng L., Wang Y., Ma T., Liu H., Geng C., Spray and flame characteristics of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray at different wall temperatures and ambient pressures in a constant volume combustion vessel. Fuel, 2019, 235: 416–425.
Kneifel A., Buri S., Velji A., Spicher U., Pape J., Sens M., Investigations on supercharging stratified part load in a spray-guided di si engine. SAE International Journal of Engines, 2008, 1(1): 171–176.
Zhao C., Yu G., Yang J., Bai M., Shang F., Achievement of diesel low temperature combustion through higher boost and egr control coupled with miller cycle. SAE Technical Paper, 2015, 2015-01-0383. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0383.
Huang K., Zhang Y., Liu G., Liu S., Jia Z., Zhang Y., Research on influence of intake pressure on diesel engine performance. Chinese internal combustion engine engineering. Chinese Internal Combustion Engine Engineering, 2017, 38(02): 73–78.
Yoshimoto Y., Yamada M., Kinoshita E., Otaka T., Influence of supercharging on biodiesel combustion in a small single cylinder di diesel engine. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, SAE Technical Paper, 2015, 2015-32-0733.
Aoyagi Y., Kunishima E., Asaumi Y., Aihara Y., Odaka M., Goto Y., Diesel combustion and emission using high boost and high injection pressure in a single cylinder engine — (Effects of boost pressure and timing retardation on thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions). Jsme International Journal Series B-Fluids and Thermal Engineering, 2005, 48(4): 648–655.
Mattarelli E., Rinaldini C.A., Mazza A., Oliva M., Development of a 2-stage supercharging system for a HSDI diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper, 2009, 2009-01-2757.
Millo F., Mallamo F., Mego G.G., The potential of dual stage turbocharging and miller cycle for HD diesel engines. SAE Technical Paper, 2005, 2005-01-0221.
Kang J., Lee J., Song H., Lee D., Enhancing power density with two-stage turbochargers. SAE Technical Paper, 2012, 2012-01-0709.
Aghav Y., Kumar M.N., Latey A.A., Gandhi N., Gokhale N., Development of two stage turbo-charging for medium duty diesel engine of power generation application. The Automotive Research Association of India, SAE Technical Paper, 2012, 2012-28-0007.
Calik A.T., Sorusbay C., Ergeneman M., Cevirgen S., Valentino G., Allocca L., Investigation of the effect of boost pressure and exhaust gas recirculation rate on nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions in diesel engines. SAE Technical Paper, 2013, 2013-24-0017
Haozhong H., Ruzhi Y., Ruiqing Z., Hui W., Zhibing S., Xueqiang W., Effect of inlet state on the formation of pahs in low temperature combustion fuelled with n-butanol-diesel blends. Transactions of CSICE, 2014, 32(5): 399–406.
Huang K., Chang H., Effects of common rail pressure and intake pressure on diesel combustion and emission. Railway Locomotive and Motor Car, 2011, 443(01): 10–13,17,55.
Tanin K.V., Wickman D.D., Montgomery D.T., Das S., Reitz R.D., The influence of boost pressure on emissions and fuel consumption of a heavy-duty single-cylinder D.I. diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper, 1999, 1999-01-0840, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-0840.
Colban W.F., Miles P.C., Oh S., Effect of intake pressure on performance and emissions in an automotive diesel engine operating in low temperature combustion regimes. SAE Technical Paper, 2007, 2007-01-4063.
Zhao F., Yu W., Pei Y., Su W., Effects of mixture inhomogeneity and combustion temperature on soot surface activity and soot formation in diesel engines. Science China Technological Sciences, 2014, 57(3): 452–460.
Zhao Z., Liu H., Yue Z., Li Y., Liang H., Kong X., Zheng Z., Yao M., Effects of intake high-pressure compressed air on thermal work conversion in a stationary diesel engine. International Journal of Green Energy, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15435075.2022.2040509.
Han Z., Reitz R.D., Turbulence modeling of internal combustion engines using rng k-ε models. Combustion Science and Technology, 1995, 106: 267–295.
Senecal P.K., Pomraning E., Richards K.J., Som S., An investigation of grid convergence for spray simulations using an LES turbulence model. SAE Technical Paper, 2013, 2013-01-1083.
Ricart L.M., Reltz R.D., Dec J.E., Comparisons of diesel spray liquid penetration and vapor fuel distributions with in-cylinder optical measurements. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme, 2000, 122(4): 588–595.
Senecal P.K., Pomraning E., Richards K.J., Briggs T.E., Choi C.Y., McDavid R.M., Patterson M.A., Multi-dimensional modeling of direct-injection diesel spray liquid length and flame lift-off length using CFD and parallel detailed chemistry. SAE Technical Paper, 2003, 2003-01-1043.
Wang H., Yao M., Reitz R.D., Development of a reduced primary reference fuel mechanism for internal combustion engine combustion simulations. Energy & Fuels, 2013, 27(12): 7843–7853.
Liu X., Kokjohn S., Li Y., Wang H., Li H., Yao M., A numerical investigation of the combustion kinetics of reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in an optical engine. Fuel, 2019, 241: 753–766.
Naber J.D., Siebers D.L., Effects of gas density and vaporization on penetration and dispersion of diesel sprays. SAE Technical Paper, 1996, 960034.
Su T.F., Chang C.T., Reitz R.D., Farrell P.V., Pierpont A,D., Tow T.C., Effects of injection pressure and nozzle geometry on spray smd and D.I. emissions. SAE Technical Paper, 1995, pp. 952360.
Su T.F., Farrell P.V., Nagarajan R.T., Nozzle effect on high pressure diesel injection. SAE Technical Paper, 1995, pp. 950083.
Pierpont D.A., Reitz R.D., Effects of injection pressure and nozzle geometry on D.I. Diesel emissions and performance. SAE Technical Paper, 1995, pp. 950604.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51921004 and U2241262).
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, C., Yue, Z., Zhao, Y. et al. Numerical Simulation of the High-Boosting Influence on Mixing, Combustion and Emissions of High-Power-Density Engine. J. Therm. Sci. 32, 933–946 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-023-1796-9