Journal of Thermal Science

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 294–303 | Cite as

Influence of Reynolds Number on the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Integrated Aggressive Intermediate Turbine Duct

  • Hongrui Liu
  • Jun Liu
  • Lucheng Ji
  • Qiang Du
  • Guang Liu
  • Pei Wang


The ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engine attracts more and more attention in modern commercial engine due to advantages of high efficiency and low Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC). One of the characteristics of ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan is the intermediate turbine duct which guides the flow leaving high pressure turbine (HPT) to low pressure turbine (LPT) at a larger diameter, and this kind of design will lead to aggressive intermediate turbine duct (AITD) design concept. Thus, it is important to design the AITD without any severe loss. From the unsteady flow’s point of view, in actual operating conditions, the incoming wake generated by HPT is unsteady which will take influence on boundary layer’s transition within the ITD and LPT. In this paper, the three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics of an AITD taken from a real engine is studied. The results of fully unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations, performed with ANSYS-CFX (RANS simulation with transitional model), are critically evaluated against experimental data. After validation of the numerical model, the physical mechanisms inside the flow channel are analyzed, with an aim to quantify the sensitivities of different Reynolds number effect on both the ITD and LPT nozzle. Some general physical mechanisms can be recognized in the unsteady environment. It is recognized that wake characteristics plays a crucial role on the loss within both the ITD and LPT nozzle section, determining both time-averaged and time-resolved characteristics of the flow field. Meanwhile, particular attention needs to be paid to the unsteady effect on the boundary layer of LPT nozzle’s suction side surface.


Intermediate Turbine Duct Unsteady Simulation Reynolds Number Flow Field Analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors wish to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China for sponsoring the research described in the current paper (51776200).


  1. [1]
    Miller R.J., Moss R.W., Ainsworth R.W., Harvey N.W.. The development of turbine exit flow in a Swan-Necked Inter-Stage diffuser. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2003, Georgia, USA, GT2003-38174.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Axelsson L.-U., Johansson T.G.. Evaluation of the flow in an intermediate turbine duct at Off-Design conditions, 26th International Congress of The Aeronautical Sciences, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2008.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Axelsson L.-U., George W.K.. Spectral analysis of the flow in an intermediate turbine duct. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2008, Berlin, Germany, GT2008-51340.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Wallin F., Osso C.A., Johansson T.G. Experimental and numerical investigation of an aggressive intermediate turbine duct: Part 1–Flowfield at Design Inlet Conditions. 26th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2008, AIAA 2008–7055.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Osso C.A., Wallin F., Johansson T.G.. Experimental and numerical investigation of an aggressive intermediate turbine duct–Part 2: flowfield under Off-Design inlet conditions. 26th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2008, AIAA 2008–7056.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Marn A., Göttlich E., Cadrecha D., et. al.. Shorten the intermediate turbine duct length by applying an integrated concept. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2008, Berlin, Germany, 2008: 1041–1051.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Spataro R., Santner C., Lengani D., et. al.. On the flow Eevolution through a LP turbine with Wide-Chord vanes in an S-Shaped channel. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012: 1011–1020.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Chaluvadi V.S.P., Kalfas A.I., Benieghbal M.R., Hodson H.P., Denton, J.D.. Blade-Row interaction in a highpressure turbine. AIAA J. Propul. Power, 2001, 17: 892–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Pullan G., Denton J.D.. Numerical simulation of vortexturbine blade interaction. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Turbomachinery, Prague, Czech Republic, 2003.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Stieger R.D., Hodson H.P.. The Unsteady Development of a turbulent wake through a downstream low-pressure turbine blade passage. ASME J. Turbomach., 2005, 127: 388–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Hodson H.P., Howell, R.J.. Blade row interactions, transition, and high-lift airfoils in low-pressure turbines. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2005, 37: 71–98.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Schobeiri M. T., €Ozt€urk B., Ashpis D. E.. On the physics of the flow separation along a low pressure turbine blade under unsteady flow conditions. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2003, Georgia, USA, GT2003-38917.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Schobeiri M.T., €Ozt€urk B.. Experimental study of the effect of periodic unsteady wake flow on boundary layer development, separation, and re-attachment along the surface of a low pressure turbine blade. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004,Vienna, Austria, GT2004-53929.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Volino R.J.. Effect of unsteady wakes on boundary layer separation on a very high lift low pressure turbine airfoil. ASME J, 2011, 134(1): 011011-011011-16.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Davis R.L., Yao J.X., Clark J.P., Stetson G., Alonso J.J., Jameson, A. Unsteady interaction between a transonic turbine stage and downstream components. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, GT-2002-30364.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Göttlich E., Malzacher F.J., Heitmeir F.J., Marn A.. Adaptation of a transonic test turbine facility for experimental investigation of aggressive intermediate turbine duct flows. AIAA Paper, Munich, Germany, ISABE-2005-1132.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Göttlich E., Marn A., Malzacher F., Heitmeir F.. On flow separation in a super-aggressive intermediate turbine duct. Proceedings 8th European Conference on Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics, Graz, Austria, 2009.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Marn A., Göttlich E., Malzacher F., Heitmeir F., Santner C.. Comparison between the flow through an aggressive and a super-aggressive intermediate turbine duct. ISABE, Montrel, Canada, 2009‒1259.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Mahallati Ali. Aerodynamics of a low pressure turbine airfoil under steady and periodically unsteady conditions. Ph.D. Thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, 2004.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Pfeil H., Herbst R., Schro¨der T.. Investigations of the laminar-turbulent transition of boundary layers disturbed by wakes. ASME J. Eng. Power, 1983, 105: 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Schlichting H, Gersten K.. Boundary layer theory, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2000.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongrui Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lucheng Ji
    • 1
  • Qiang Du
    • 2
    • 3
  • Guang Liu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pei Wang
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Aerospace EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine, Institute of Engineering ThermophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations