Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1381–1395 | Cite as

Reference evapotranspiration concentration and its relationship with precipitation concentration at southern and northern slopes of Tianshan Mountains, China

  • Fa-rong Huang
  • Tao Yang
  • Qian Li
  • Si-si Li
  • Lan-hai LiEmail author
  • Suwannee Adsavakulchai


The investigation of concentration characteristics of reference evapotranspiration (ETref) is important for water resources management. The concentration index (CI), concentration degree (CD) and concentration period (CP) are used to investigate the concentration characteristics of ETref and the relationship between ETref concentration and precipitation concentration at sub-monthly timescale based on the daily climatic variables from 1966 to 2015 in 27 meteorological stations at the southern and northern slopes of Tianshan Mountains in China. It was found that the CI of ETref is about 0.40 and less concentrated than precipitation in the study area. At the southern slope, the maximum ETref appears in late June and is earlier than the maximum precipitation (early July), ETref distributes more equally than precipitation, and the CI, CD and CP of these two variables do not show significant change based on the Mann-Kendall test. At the northern slope, both the maximum ETref and precipitation appear in early July, and ETref is more dispersed than precipitation. During the study period, the maximum ETref at the northern slope tends to appear earlier due to the impacts of wind speed, relative humidity, sunshine duration, and air temperature. ETref concentration does not match the precipitation concentration in the study area, particularly at the southern slope. The mismatch between ETref and precipitation concentration within a year reveals the water resources pressure on environmental, social and economic sustainability in the study area.


Concentration Reference evapotranspiration Precipitation Trend analysis Tianshan Mountains 


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This study was funded by the West Light Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2016-QNXZ-B-13), the open project of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Key Laboratory (2017D04010), the natural science foundation of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (2017D01B52) and the Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE) (No. XDA2004030202). We are grateful to the supports from Tianshan Station for Snow cover and Avalanche Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for data collection and analysis. The authors thank Dr. L. X. LI from Ontario Veterinary Medical Association for her linguistic assistance of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and GeographyChinese Academy of SciencesUrumqiChina
  2. 2.Ili station for Watershed Ecosystem ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesXinyuanChina
  3. 3.Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central AsiaChinese Academy of SciencesUrumqiChina
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.School of EngineeringUniversity of the Thai Chamber of CommerceBangkokThailand

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