Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 15, Issue 11, pp 2378–2397 | Cite as

Divergent growth trends and climatic response of Picea obovata along elevational gradient in Western Sayan mountains, Siberia

  • Elena BabushkinaEmail author
  • Liliana Belokopytova
  • Dina Zhirnova
  • Anna Barabantsova
  • Eugene Vaganov


In mountain ecosystems, plants are sensitive to climate changes, and an entire range of species distribution can be observed in a small area. Therefore, mountains are of great interest for climate-growth relationship analysis. In this study, the Siberian spruce’s (Picea obovata Ledeb.) radial growth and its climatic response were investigated in the Western Sayan Mountains, near the Sayano-Shushenskoe Reservoir. Sampling was performed at three sites along an elevational gradient: at the lower border of the species range, in the middle, and at the treeline. Divergence of growth trends between individual trees was observed at each site, with microsite landscape-soil conditions as the most probable driver of this phenomenon. Cluster analysis of individual tree-ring width series based on inter-serial correlation was carried out, resulting in two sub-set chronologies being developed for each site. These chronologies appear to have substantial differences in their climatic responses, mainly during the cold season. This response was not constant due to regional climatic change and the local influence of the nearby Sayano-Shushenskoe Reservoir. The main response of spruce to growing season conditions has a typical elevational pattern expected in mountains: impact of temperature shifts with elevation from positive to negative, and impact of precipitation shifts in the opposite direction. Chronologies of trees, growing under more severe micro-conditions, are very sensitive to temperature during September-April and to precipitation during October-December, and they record both inter-annual and long-term climatic variation. Consequently, it would be interesting to test if they indicate the Siberian High anticyclone, which is the main driver of these climatic factors.


Climate change Tree-ring width Growth trends Climate-growth relationship Picea obovata Elevational gradient 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Authors would like to thank administration of the National Park “Shushensky Bor” and personally its director Tolmachev V.A. for providing permission and facilitating field work on the park territory. Also, authors are grateful to the editor and reviewers for their constructive comments that have helped to improve this work significantly. The research reported in this manuscript is funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no.17-04-00315).

Supplementary material

11629_2018_4974_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (166 kb)
Divergent growth trends and climatic response of Picea obovata along elevational gradient in Western Sayan mountains, Siberia


  1. Anderson RG, Goulden ML (2011) Relationships between climate, vegetation, and energy exchange across a mountain gradient. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 116(G1). Google Scholar
  2. Babushkina EA, Knorre AA, Vaganov EA, Bryukhanova MV (2011) Transformation of climatic response in radial increment of trees depending on topoecological conditions of their occurrence. Geography and Natural Resources 32(1): 80–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babushkina EA, Vaganov EA, Belokopytova LV, et al. (2015) Competitive strength effect in the climate response of scots pine radial growth in south-central siberia forest-steppe. Tree Ring Research 71(2): 106–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber VA, Juday GP, Finney BP (2000) Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature 405(6787): 668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker A, Bugmann H (eds.) (2001) Global Change and Mountain Regions: the Mountain Research Initiative. IGBP Report 49, Stockholm. p 48.Google Scholar
  6. Becker A, Körner C, Brun JJ, et al. (2007) Ecological and land use studies along elevational gradients. Mountain Research and Development 27(1): 58–65.[58:EALUSA]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Begum S, Nakaba S, Yamagishi Y, et al. (2013) Regulation of cambial activity in relation to environmental conditions: understanding the role of temperature in wood formation of trees. Physiologia Plantarum 147(1): 46–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belokopytova LV, Babushkina EA, Zhirnova DF, et al. (2018) Climatic response of conifer radial growth in forest-steppes of South Siberia: comparison of three approaches. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 11(4): 366–376. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Briffa KR, Osborn TJ, Schweingruber FH (2004) Large-scale temperature inferences from tree rings: a review. Global and Planetary Change 40(1–2): 11–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carrer M, Castagneri D, Prendin AL, Petit G, von Arx G (2017) Retrospective analysis of wood anatomical traits reveals a recent extension in tree cambial activity in two high-elevation conifers. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 737. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Case BS, Duncan RP (2014) A novel framework for disentangling the scale-dependent influences of abiotic factors on alpine treeline position. Ecography 37: 838–851. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castagneri D, Fonti P, von Arx G, et al. (2017) How does climate influence xylem morphogenesis over the growing season? Insights from long-term intra-ring anatomy in Picea abies. Annals of Botany 119(6): 1011–1020. Google Scholar
  13. Chae H, Lee H, Lee S, et al. (2012) Local variability in temperature, humidity and radiation in the Baekdu Daegan Mountain protected area of Korea. Journal of Mountain Science 9(5): 613–627. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapman WL, Walsh JE (1993) Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74(1): 33–47.<0033:RVOSIA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen F, Zhang RB, Wang HQ, et al. (2015) Recent climate warming of central China reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the eastern Qinling Mountains and its linkages to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Journal of Mountain Science 12(2): 396–403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen L, Huang JG, Stadt KJ, et al. (2017) Drought explains variation in the radial growth of white spruce in western Canada. Agricultural and forest meteorology 233: 133–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chhin S, Hogg ET, Lieffers VJ, et al. (2008) Potential effects of climate change on the growth of lodgepole pine across diameter size classes and ecological regions. Forest Ecology and Management 256(10): 1692–1703. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook ER (1985) A Time Series Analysis Approach to Tree-Ring Standardization. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson. p 171.Google Scholar
  19. Cook ER, Kairiukstis LA (eds.) (1990) Methods of Dendrochronology. Application in Environmental Sciences. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht; Boston; London. p 394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cook ER, Krusic PJ (2005) Program ARSTAN (Version 41d). (, accessed on 2018-04-02)Google Scholar
  21. Cullen LE, Palmer JG, Duncan RP, et al. (2001) Climate change and tree-ring relationships of Nothofagus menziesii tree-line forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 1981–1991. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D’Arrigo R, Wilson R, Liepert B, et al. (2008) On the “Divergence Problem” in Northern Forests: A review of the tree-ring evidence and possible cases. Global and Planetary Change 60: 289–305. DiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Filippo A, Biondi F, Maugeri M, et al. (2012) Bioclimate and growth history affect beech lifespan in the Italian Alps and Apennines. Global Change Biology 18(3): 960–972. DiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Filippo A, Pederson N, Baliva M, et al. (2015) The longevity of broadleaf deciduous trees in Northern Hemisphere temperate forests: insights from tree-ring series. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3: 46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Driscoll WW, Wiles GC, D’Arrigo RD, et al. (2005) Divergent tree growth response to recent climatic warming, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L20703. Google Scholar
  26. Fauquette S, Suc JP, Médail F, et al. (2018) The Alps: a geological, climatic and human perspective on vegetation history and modern plant diversity. In: Hoorn C, Perrigo A, Antonelli A (eds.) Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 413–428.Google Scholar
  27. Gong DY, Ho CH (2002) The Siberian High and climate change over middle to high latitude Asia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 72(1–2): 1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonzalez P, Neilson RP, Lenihan JM, et al. (2010) Global patterns in the vulnerability of ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19(6): 755–768. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gottfried M, Pauli H, Reiter K, et al. (1999) A fine-scaled predictive model for changes in species distribution patterns of high mountain plants induced by climate warming. Diversity and Distributions 5(6): 241–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gottfried M, Pauli H, Futschik A, et al. (2012) Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change. Nature Climate Change 2(2): 111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Groffman PM, Driscoll CT, Fahey TJ, et al. (2001) Colder soils in a warmer world: a snow manipulation study in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 56(2): 135–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamann A, Wang T (2006) Potential effects of climate change on ecosystem and tree species distribution in British Columbia. Ecology 87(11): 2773–2786.[2773:PEOCCO]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamlet AF, Lettenmaier DP (2005) Production of temporally consistent gridded precipitation and temperature fields for the continental United States. Journal of Hydrometeorology 6(3): 330–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Helama S, Sutinen R (2016) Inter- and intra-seasonal effects of temperature variation on radial growth of alpine treeline Norway spruce. Journal of Mountain Science 13(1): 1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holmes RL (1983) Computer-assisted quality control in treering dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Bulletin 43: 68–78.Google Scholar
  36. Jiang Y, Wang BQ, Dong MY, et al. (2015) Response of daily stem radial growth of Platycladus orientalis to environmental factors in a semi-arid area of North China. Trees 29(1): 87–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiao L, Jiang Y, Wang M, et al. (2016) Responses to climate change in radial growth of Picea schrenkiana along elevations of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, northwest China. Dendrochronologia 40: 117–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jochner M, Bugmann H, Nötzli M, Bigler C (2018) Tree growth responses to changing temperatures across space and time: a fine-scale analysis at the treeline in the Swiss Alps. Trees 32: 645–660. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jonsson B (1969) Studies of Variations in the Widths of Annual Rings in Scots Pine and Norway Spruce due to Weather Conditions in Sweden. Institutionen för Skogsproduktion, Stockholm. p 297. (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  40. Kattsov VM, Semenov SM (eds.) (2014) Second Roshydromet Assessment Report on Climate Change and its Consequences in Russian Federation. Roshydromet, Moscow. p 54. (In Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Körner CH (1995) Alpine Plant Diversity: a Global Survey and Functional Interpretations. In: Chapin FS III, Körner C (eds.) Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp 45–62.Google Scholar
  42. Körner C (2000) Why are there global gradients in species richness? Mountains might hold the answer. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15(12): 513–514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Körner C (2003) Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems. Springer Science & Business Media. p 344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Körner C (2007) The use of ‘altitude’ in ecological research. Trends in ecology & evolution 22(11): 569–574. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Körner C (2009) Mountain Vegetation under Environmental Change. In: Jandl R, Borsdorf A, Miegroet HV, Lackner R, Psenner R (eds.) Global Change and Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions. Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck. pp 25–29.Google Scholar
  46. Körner C (2016) Plant adaptation to cold climates. F1000 Research 5 (F1000 Faculty Rev): 2769. Google Scholar
  47. Kosmakov IV (2001) Thermal and Ice Regime in the Upper and Lower Reaches of High-Pressure Hydroelectric Power Stations on the Yenisei. Klaretianum, Krasnoyarsk. p 142. (In Russian)Google Scholar
  48. Kraus C, Zang C, Menzel A (2016) Elevational response in leaf and xylem phenology reveals different prolongation of growing period of common beech and Norway spruce under warming conditions in the Bavarian Alps. European Journal of Forest Research 135(6): 1011–1023. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kug JS, Jeong JH, Jang YS, et al. (2015) Two distinct influences of Arctic warming on cold winters over North America and East Asia. Nature Geoscience 8(10): 759. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kulagin AY, Davydychev AN, Zaitsev GA (2006) Specific features of the growth of Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) at early stages of ontogeny in broadleaf-conifer forests of the Ufa plateau. Russian Journal of Ecology 37(1): 66–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kullman L (1993) Tree limit dynamics of Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa in relation to climate variability: evidence from central Sweden. Journal of Vegetation Science 4(6): 765–772. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lange J, Cruz-García R, Gurskaya M, et al. (2016). Can microsite effects explain divergent growth in treeline Scots pine? In: TRACE-Tree Rings in Archaeology, Climatology and Ecology, Volume 14. Scientific Technical Report 16/04, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. pp. 93–101. Google Scholar
  53. Latreille A, Davi H, Huard F, et al. (2017) Variability of the climate-radial growth relationship among Abies alba trees and populations along altitudinal gradients. Forest Ecology and Management 396: 150–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lei JP, Feng XH, Shi Z, et al. (2016) Climate-growth relationship stability of Picea crassifolia on an elevation gradient, Qilian Mountain, Northwest China. Journal of Mountain Science 13(4): 734–743. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li Y, Zhang CQ, Zhou XH (2014) Ecological responses to Holocene millennial-scale climate change at high altitudes of East and Central Asia: A case study of Picea/Abies pollen changes in lacustrine sediments. Journal of Mountain Science 11(3): 674–687. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lo, YH, Blanco JA, Seely B, et al. (2010) Relationships between climate and tree radial growth in interior British Columbia, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 259(5): 932–942. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lyu L, Deng X, Zhang QB (2016) Elevation pattern in growth coherency on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. PloS One 11(9): e0163201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mäkinen H, Nöjd P, Mielikäinen K (2000) Climatic signal in annual growth variation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) along a transect from central Finland to the Arctic timberline. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 769–777. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mäkinen H, Nöjd P, Kahle HP, et al. (2002) Radial growth variation of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) across latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in central and northern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 171(3): 243–259. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maurer EP, Wood AW, Adam JC, et al. (2002) A long-term hydrologically based dataset of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States. Journal of Climate 15(22): 3237–3251.<3237:ALTHBD>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Miina J (2000) Dependence of tree-ring, earlywood and latewood indices of Scots pine and Norway spruce on climatic factors in eastern Finland. Ecological Modelling 132: 259–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Monnier Y, Prévosto B, Ripert C, et al. (2012) Forest microhabitats differentially influence seedling phenology of two co-existing Mediterranean oak species. Journal of Vegetation Science 23(2): 260–270. MontoroCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Girona M, Morin H, Lussier JM, et al. (2016) Radial growth response of black spruce stands ten years after experimental shelterwoods and seed-tree cuttings in boreal forest. Forests 7: 240. MontoroCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Girona M, Rossi S, Lussier JM, et al. (2017). Understanding tree growth responses after partial cuttings: A new approach. PLoS ONE 12: e0172653. Google Scholar
  65. Müller M, Schickhoff U, Scholten T, et al. (2016) How do soil properties affect alpine treelines? General principles in a global perspective and novel findings from Rolwaling Himal, Nepal. Progress in Physical Geography 40: 135–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Naurzbaev MM, Vaganov EA (2000) Variation of early summer and annual temperature in east Taymir and Putoran (Siberia) over the last two millennia inferred from tree rings. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere 105(D6): 7317–7326. Google Scholar
  67. Oleksyn J, Tjoelker MG, Reich PB (1998) Adaptation to changing environment in Scots pine populations across a latitudinal gradient. Silva Fennica 32(2): 129–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Popov AV, Shatravskii AI (1994) Removal of floating timber from the Sayano-Shushenskoe hydrostation reservoir. Hydrotechnical Construction 28: 204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rinntech (2011). LINTAB: Precision Ring by Ring. (,english/accessed on 2018-04-02)Google Scholar
  70. Rogers JC, Mosely-Thompson E (1995). Atlantic Arctic cyclones and mild Siberian winters of the 1980s. Geophysical Research Letters 22: 799–802. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Griçar J, et al. (2008) Critical temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers of cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17(6): 696–707. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rossi S, Girard M-J, Morin H (2014) Lengthening of the duration of xylogenesis engenders disproportionate increases in xylem production. Global Change Biology 20: 2261–2271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ruess RW, Hendrick RL, Bryant JP (1998) Regulation of fine root dynamics by mammalian browsers in early successional Alaskan taiga forests. Ecology 79(8): 2706–2720.[2706:ROFRDB]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rumpf SB, Hülber K, Klonner G, et al. (2018) Range dynamics of mountain plants decrease with elevation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115(8): 1848–1853. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sang W (2009) Plant diversity patterns and their relationships with soil and climatic factors along an altitudinal gradient in the middle Tianshan Mountain area, Xinjiang, China. Ecological Research 24(2): 303–314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Savelieva NI, Semiletov IP, Vasilevskaya LN, Pugach SP (2000) A climate shift in seasonal values of meteorological and hydrological parameters for Northeastern Asia. Progress in Oceanography 47(2–4): 279–297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Savva Y, Oleksyn J, Reich PB, et al. (2006). Interannual growth response of Norway spruce to climate along an altitudinal gradient in the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Trees 20(6): 735–746. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shiyatov SG (1986) Dendrochronology of the Higher Timberline on the Urals. Moskow: Nauka. p. 136. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  79. Sidor CG, Popa I, Vlad R, Cherubini P (2015) Different tree-ring responses of Norway spruce to air temperature across an altitudinal gradient in the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). Trees 29(4): 985–997. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Skre O, Nes K (1996) Combined effects of elevated winter temperatures and CO2 on Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica 30: 135–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Subedi SC, Bhattarai KR, Chauudhary RP (2015) Distribution pattern of vascular plant species of mountains in Nepal and their fate against global warming. Journal of Mountain Science 12(6): 1345–1354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tierney GL, Fahey TJ, Groffman PM, et al. (2001) Soil freezing alters fine root dynamics in a northern hardwood forest. Biogeochemistry 56(2): 175–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tognetti R, Palombo C (2013) Take a tree to the limit: the stress line. Tree Physiology 33(9): 887–890. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vaganov EA, Hughes MK, Shashkin AV (2006) Growth Dynamics of Conifer Tree Rings: Images of Past and Future Environments. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York. p 354.Google Scholar
  85. Vitasse Y, Delzon S, Bresson CC, et al. (2009) Altitudinal differentiation in growth and phenology among populations of temperate-zone tree species growing in a common garden. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39(7): 1259–1269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang T, Ren H, Ma K (2005) Climatic signals in tree ring of Picea schrenkiana along an altitudinal gradient in the central Tianshan Mountains, northwestern China. Trees 19(6): 736–742. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang Z, Yang B, Deslauriers A, Bräuning A (2015) Intra-annual stem radial increment response of Qilian juniper to temperature and precipitation along an altitudinal gradient in northwestern China. Trees 29(1): 25–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Weih M, Karlsson PS (2002) Low winter soil temperature affects summertime nutrient uptake capacity and growth rate of mountain birch seedlings in the subarctic, Swedish lapland. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 434–439. Google Scholar
  89. Wieser G, Holtmeier FK, Smith WK (2014) Treelines in a Changing Global Environment. In: Tausz M, Grulke N (eds.), Trees in a Changing Environment. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 221–263.
  90. Wilmking M, Juday GP, Barber VA, Zald HS (2004) Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at treeline in Alaska through temperature thresholds. Global Change Biology 10(10): 1724–1736. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilmking M, D’arrigo R, Jacoby GC, et al. (2005) Increased temperature sensitivity and divergent growth trends in circumpolar boreal forests. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L15715. Google Scholar
  92. WMO (2007) The role of climatological normals in a changing climate. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva. p 24.Google Scholar
  93. Wypych A, Ustrnul Z, Schmatz DR (2018) Long-term variability of air temperature and precipitation conditions in the Polish Carpathians. Journal of Mountain Science 15(2): 237–253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Xu M, Ma L, Jia Y, et al. (2017) Integrating the effects of latitude and altitude on the spatial differentiation of plant community diversity in a mountainous ecosystem in China. PloS one 12(3): e0174231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yang B, He M, Shishov V, et al. (2017) New perspective on spring vegetation phenology and global climate change based on Tibetan Plateau tree-ring data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(27): 6966–6971. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yuan Y, Li J (1999) Reconstruction and analysis of 450 years’s winter temperature series in the Urumqi river source of Tianshan Mountains. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 21: 64–70. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  97. Zhang L, Jiang Y, Zhao S, et al. (2016) Different responses of the radial growth of conifer species to increasing temperature along altitude gradient: Pinus tabulaeformis in the Helan Mountains (Northwestern China). Polish Journal of Ecology 64(4): 509–525. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ziaco E, Biondi F (2016) Tree growth, cambial phenology, and wood anatomy of limber pine at a Great Basin (USA) mountain observatory. Trees 30(5): 1507–1521. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Khakass Technical InstituteSiberian Federal UniversityAbakanRussia
  2. 2.National Park “Shushensky Bor”ShushenskoeRussia
  3. 3.Siberian Federal UniversityKrasnoyarskRussia
  4. 4.Sukachev Institute of ForestSiberian Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesKrasnoyarskRussia

Personalised recommendations