Early warning model of debris flow is important for providing local residents with reliable and accurate warning information to escape from debris flow hazards. This research studied the debris flow initiation in the Yindongzi gully in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan province, China with scaled-down model experiments. We set rainfall intensity and slope angle as dominating parameters and carried out 20 scaled-down model tests under artificial rainfall conditions. The experiments set four slope angles (32°, 34°, 37°, 42°) and five rainfall intensities (60 mm/h, 90 mm/h, 120 mm/h, 150 mm/h, and 180 mm/h) treatments. The characteristic variables in the experiments, such as, rainfall duration, pore water pressure, moisture content, surface inclination, and volume were monitored. The experimental results revealed the failure mode of loose slope material and the process of slope debris flow initiation, as well as the relationship between the surface deformation and the physical parameters of experimental model. A traditional rainfall intensity-duration early warning model (I-D model) was firstly established by using a mathematical regression analysis, and it was then improved into ISD model and ISM model (Here, I is rainfall Intensity, S is Slope angle, D is rainfall Duration, and M is Moisture content). The warning model can provide reliable early warning of slope debris flow initiation.
Slope debris flow Artificial rainfall model Early warning model Model experiment
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This study was financially supported by the CAS Pioneer Hundred Talents Program and the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment (Grant No. SDS-135-1705). The authors also gratefully acknowledge support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41771021, 41471429, and 41790443) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFD0800501). We also acknowledge the help and advice of several experts and editors.
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