Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 730–737 | Cite as

Effects of Trichoderma harzianum YC459 and soil types on seed germination and seedling growth in rock slope restoration

  • Hoseop Ma
  • Hans Enukwa Ettagbor
  • Choonsig Kim


We carried out experiments with various concentrations of Trichoderma harzianum YC459 in different soil types (forest soil, mixed soil, merchantable soil, and leaf mold soil) to evaluate its effect on seed germination and seedling establishment of four species (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dianthus barbatus var. asiaticus Nakai, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya Miq., and Parthenocissus tricuspidata Planch) for rock slope restoration. We also investigated the use of drilled slanted holes on the rock slopes for seedling establishment. The results showed that T. harzianum concentration had significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and seedling survival for all the species with different soil types. Seed germination and survival rates peaked at 5% T. harzianum concentration with leaf mold soil and decreased as T. harzianum concentration increased from 5% to 10%. Seedling survival rates of all four species were generally lowest at 0% T. harzianum concentration in all soil types. The height of F. arundinacea and L. cyrtobotrya peaked at 5% T. harzianum concentration whereas that of D. barbatus and P. tricuspidata peaked at 10% T. harzianum concentration. We concluded that 5% T. harzianum concentration with leaf mold soil is appropriate for seed germination and seedling survival rates of most species, thus enhancing seedling establishment. Practical application of the findings of this study will contribute in the vegetation restoration of steep rocks in mountain environments


Dianthus barbatus Drilled holes Festuca arundinacea Lespedeza cyrtobotrya Seedling establishment Seedling survival 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This study was carried out with the support of “Forest Science & Technology Projects (Project No. S211216L020110)” provided by Korea Forest Service.


  1. Akladious SA, Abbas SM (2014) Application of Trichoderma harzianum T22 as a biofertilizer potential in maize growth. Plant Nutrition 37: 30–49. 2013.829100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen F, Xu Y, Wang C, et al. (2013) Effects of concrete content on seed germination and seedling establishment in vegetation concrete matrix in slope restoration. Ecological Engineering 58: 99–104. Scholar
  3. Chen LH, Zhang J, Shao XH, et al. (2015) Development and evaluation of Trichoderma asperellum preparation for control of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Biocontrol Science Technology 25: 316–328. Scholar
  4. Chen LH, Zheng JH, Shao XH, et al. (2016) Effects of Trichoderma harzianum T83 on Suaeda salsa L. in coastal saline soil. Ecological Engineering 91: 58–64. Scholar
  5. Chowdappa P, Mohan KSP, Jyothi LM, et al. (2013) Growth stimulation and induction of systematic resistance in tomato against early and late blight by Bacillus subtilis OTPB1 or Trichoderma harzianum OTPB3. Biological Control 65: 109–117. Scholar
  6. Clemente AS, Werner C, Maguas C, et al. (2004) Restoration of limestone quarry: effect of soil amendments on the establishment of native Mediterranean sclerophyllous shrubs. Restoration Ecology 12: 20–28.–2971.2004.00256.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Contreras-Cornejo HA, Macias-Rodriguez L, Cortes-Penagos C, et al. (2009) Trichoderma virens, a plant beneficial fungus, enhances biomass production and promotes lateral root growth through an auxin-dependent mechanism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 149: 1579–1592. https://doi. org/10.1104/pp.108.130369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dubey SC, Suresha M, Singha B (2007) Evaluation of Trichoderma species against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for integrated management of chickpea wilt. Biological Control 40: 118–127. 2006.06.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Esther B, Patricio GF (2004) Factor controlling vegetation establishment and water erosion on motorway slopes in Valencia Spain. Restoration Ecology 12: 166–174. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1061–2971.2004.0325.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hao Z, Chu LM (2011) Plant community structure, soil properties and microbial characteristics in revegetated quarries. Ecological Engineering 37: 1104–1111. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.05.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harman GE, Petzoldt R, Comis A, et al. (2004) Interactions between Trichoderma harzianum strain t22 and maize inbred line mo17 and effects of these interactions on diseases caused by Pythium ultimum and Colletotrichum graminicola. Phytopathology 94: 147–153. 2004.94.2.147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iris Y, Alok KS, Yoram K, Ilan C (2001) Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on microelement concentrations and increased growth of cucumber plants. Plant and Soil 235: 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jim CY (2001) Ecological and landscape rehabilitation of quarry site in Hong Kong. Restoration Ecology 9: 85–94. https://doi. org/10.1046/j.1526–100x.2001.009001085.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. López-Bucio J, Pelagio-Flores R, Herrera-Estrella A (2015) Trichoderma as biostimulant:exploiting the multilevel properties of a plant beneficial fungus. Scientia Horticulturae 196: 109–123. Scholar
  15. Ma HS, Kang WS, Park JW (2010) Analysis of early revegetation effect in rock slopes using vegetation plant. Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology 13(5): 81–89. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  16. Ma HS, Kang WS, Park JW (2011) Development of revegetation measures using boring technique in rock slopes-Focus on Lesperdeza cyrtobotrya. Journal of Korean Forest Society 100(4): 558–564. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  17. Martínez-Medina A, Roldán A, Pascual JA (2009). Performance of a Trichoderma harzianum Bentonite-vermiculite formation against Fusarium wilt in seedling nursery Melon plants. HortScience 44(7): 2025–2027.Google Scholar
  18. Mastouri F, Bjorkman T, Harman G (2010) Seed treatment with Trichoderma hazianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings. Phytopathology 100: 1213–1221.–03–10–0091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oliveira G, Nunes A, Clemente A, et al. (2011) Effect of substrate treatments on survival and growth of Mediterranean shrubs in a revegetated quarry: an eight-year study. Ecological Engineering 37: 255–259. 2010.11.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pelagio-Flores R, Esparza-Reynoso SE, Garnica-Vergara A, et al. (2017) Trichoderma-induced acidification is an early trigger for changes in Arabidopsis root growth and determines fungal phytostimulation. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 822. Scholar
  21. Samuels GJ (1996) Trichoderma: A review of biology and systematic of genus. Mycological Research 100 (8): 923–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22: 123–131. 001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Singh K, Pandey VC, Singh B, et al. (2012) Ecological restoration of degraded sodic lands through afforestation and cropping. Ecological Engineering 43: 70–80. Scholar
  24. Turnbull L, Crawley M, Rees M (2000) Are plant populations seed-limited? A review of seed sowing experiments. Oikos 88: 225–238.–0706.2000.880201.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vinale F, Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL, et al. (2008) Trichoderma–plant–pathogen interactions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40: 1–10. 07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang ZQ, Wu LH, Liu TT (2009) Revegetation of steep rocky slopes: planting climbing vegetation species in artificially drilled holes. Ecological Engineering 35: 1079–1084. Scholar
  27. Yang X, Chen L, Yong X, et al. (2011) Formulations can affect rhizosphere colonization and biocontrol efficiency of Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 against Fusarium wilt of cucumbers. Biology and Fertility of Soils 47: 239–248.–010–0527-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xu WN, Ye JJ, Zhou MT (2004) Several problems of vegetation technology for protecting slopes using vegetation-growing concrete. Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering 35: 50–52. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Zhong QC, Liang HW, Ting TL (2009) Revegetation of steep rocky slopes: Planting climbing vegetation species in artificially drilled holes. Ecological Engineering 35: 1079–1084. Scholar
  30. Zheng ZX, Shetty K (1999) Effect of apple pomace-based Trichoderma inoculants on seedling vigour in pea (Pisum satibum) germinated in potting soil. Process Biochemistry 34: 731–735.–9592(98)00149–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Environmental Resources, Institute of Agriculture and Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuKorea
  2. 2.Department of Forest ResourcesGyeongnam National University of Science and TechnologyJinjuKorea

Personalised recommendations