Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 549–557 | Cite as

Dating of the topmost terrace in the Jingxian Basin, Anhui Province: an indication of the establishment of the Qingyijiang River

  • Chun-sheng Hu
  • Chen-qi Hu
  • Shao-chen Liu
  • Guang-lai Xu
  • Li Wu
  • Li-hui Yang
Article

Abstract

On the northern fringe of Mt. Huangshan, many river terraces are developed at the junction between mountains and plains. The river terraces are most typical in the Jingxian Basin, Anhui Province, where the Qingyijiang River, one of the longest tributaries of the lower Yangtze River, developed three staircase terraces. The topmost terrace (i.e., the T3 terrace) tread is 38 - 39 m above river level, and the top of the gravels is generally covered by 3 - 10.9 m of red clay deposits. Systematic magnetostratigraphy and electron spin resonance dating are used to research the timing of the establishment of the Qingyijiang River. The main results show that the topmost terrace developed no later than 900 kyr ago and that the appearance of the Qingyijiang River occurred correspondingly at least before 900 kyr ago on the northern fringe of Mt. Huangshan. In view of the almost synchronous age, the establishment of the Qingyijiang River was seemingly a response to the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution when the 100 kyr cycle commenced, and the Kunlun-Huanghe movement during the early-middle Pleistocene transition. In addition, the establishment of the Qingyijiang River possibly reflected the birth of the modern Yangtze River to some degree. Therefore the timing of the formation of the Yangtze River is restricted to no later than 900 kyr ago based on the appearance of the Qingyijiang River

Keywords

Qingyijiang River Topmost terrace Magnetostratigraphy Electron Spin Resonance dating Establishment timing Jingxian Basin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The study was financially sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41301011, 41301029, 41201008). We thank Dr. HU Xu-zhi and Dr. CHEN Yi-zhen for experiment assistances of paleomagnetic and ESR measurements. Our cordial gratitude should also be extended to the editors and anonymous reviews for their constructive suggestions and valuable comments which are greatly helpful for further improvement of the quality of this manuscript.

References

  1. Antoine P, Moncel MH, Locht JL, et al. (2015) Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidence from the fluvial terrace system of the Somme basin (Northern France). Quaternary International 370: 77–99. DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint. 2014.08.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berger WH, Jansen E (1994) Mid-Pleistocene climate shift: the Nansen Connection. Geophysical Monograph 85: 295–311. DOI: 10.1029/GM085p0295Google Scholar
  3. Bridgland DR, Westaway R (2008) Climatically controlled river terrace staircases: a worldwide Quaternary phenomenon. Geomorphology 98(3–4): 285–315. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.12.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bridgland DR, Westaway R (2014) Quaternary fluvial archives and landscape evolution: a global synthesis. Proceedings of the Geologist’s Association 125(5–6): 600–629. DOI: 10.1016/j.pgeola.2014.10.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cande SC, Kent DV (1995) Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(B4): 6093–6095. DOI: 10.1029/94JB03098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Compiling group of Anhui regional strata table (1978) Regional strata table in East China: fascicule of Anhui Province. Geology Publishing House, Beijing, China. pp 197–199, 216-217. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Cordier S, Harmand D, Frechen M, et al. (2006) Fluvial system response to Middle and Upper Pleistocene climate change in the Meurthe and Moselle valleys (Eastern Paris Basin and Rhenish Massif). Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 1460–1474. DOI:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cordier S, Harmang D, Lauer T, et al. (2012) Geochronological reconstruction of the Pleistocene evolution of the Sarre valley (France and Germany) using OSL and ESR dating techniques. Geomorphology 165-166(2): 91–106. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.12.038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cui ZJ, Wu YQ, Liu GN, et al. (1998) On Kunlun-Yellow River tectonic movement. Science China Earth Sciences 41(6): 592–600. DOI: 10.1007/BF02878741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan DD, Li CX (2008) Timing of the Yangtze initiation draining the Tibetan Plateau throughout to the East China Sea: a review. Frontiers of Earth Science in China 2(3): 302–313. DOI: 10.1007/s11707-008-0018-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fang HQ (1959) Neotectonic movement in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River region. Acta Geologica Sinica 39(3): 328–343. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Han JE, Shao ZG, Zhu DG, et al. (2013) Characteristics of river terraces and formation of the Yellow River in the source region of Yellow River. Geology in China 40(5): 1531–1541. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Hu CS, Pan BT, Su H, et al. (2009) Discovery and paleomagnetic dating of 800 ka B.P. terrace of the Yellow River in Lanzhou Basin. Scientia Geographica Sinica 29(2): 278–282. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Hu CS, Zhou YQ (2014) Geomorphic response of the river to the environmental change event at 0.8 Ma B.P. Scientia Geographica Sinica 34(5): 614–620. DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs. 2014.05.614 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  15. Hu ZB, Pan BT, Wang JP, et al. (2012) Fluvial terrace formation in the eastern Fenwei Basin, China, during the past 1.2 Ma as a combined archive of tectonics and climate change. Journal of Asian Earth Science 60: 235–245. DOI: 10.1016/j.jseaes. 2012.09.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang NS, Guan KN (1993) Study on early Pleistocene gravel beds in Yangluo area, east of Hubei province. Earth Science 18(5): 189–596. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Jiang ZY, Wu YQ, Cui ZJ (2005) Kunlun-Yellow River tectonic motion and formation of modern physical geography pattern of China. Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science) 41(1): 85–88. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Kang CG, Li CA, Zhang YF, et al. (2014) Heavy mineral characteristics of the Yichang gravel layers and provenance tracing. Acta Geologica Sinica 88(2): 254–262. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Kirschvink JL (1980) The least-squares line and plane and the analysis of palaeomagnetic data. Geophysical Journal International 62(3): 699–718. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1980. tb02601.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee CY (1933) The development of the upper Yangtze valley. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 3: 107–117. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Li JJ, Fang XM (1999) Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and environmental changes. Chinese Science Bulletin 44(23): 2117–2124. DOI: 10.1007/BF03182692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li JJ, Xie SY, Kuang MS (2001) Geomorphic evolution of the Yangtze Gorges and the time of their formation. Geomorphology 41(1–2): 125–135. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-555X (01)00110-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li T, Li CA, Kang CG, et al. (2010) Sedimentary environment and geomorphological significance of the gravel bed in Yichang. Geology in China 37(2): 438–445. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Lin M, Yin GM, Ding YQ, et al. (2006) Reliability study on ESR dating of the aluminum center in quartz. Radiation Measurements 41(7–8): 1045–1049. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas. 2006.05.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu CR, Yin GM, Han F (2015) Effects of grain size on quartz ESR dating of Ti-Li center in fluvial and lacustrine sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 30: 513–518. DOI: 10.1016/j.quageo.2015.02.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu HH, Burbank DW, Li YL (2010) Alluvial sequence in the north piedmont of the Chinese Tian Shan over the past 550 kyr and its relationship to climate change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 285(3–4): 343–353. DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.11.031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ma ZX, Yu ZQ (2001) Quaternary stratigraphic section along the Changhong Highway in Jiujiang, Jiangxi. Regional Geology of China 20(4): 352–358. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Maddy D, Bridgland DR, Green PC (2000) Crustal uplift in southern England: evidence from the river terrace records. Geomorphology 33(3–4): 167–181. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-555X (99)00120-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maddy D, Bridgland DR, Westaway R (2001) Uplift-driven valley incision and climate-controlled river terrace development in the Thames Valley, UK. Quaternary International 79(1): 23–36. DOI:10.1016/S1040-6182(00)00120-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mei H, Li CA, Cheng FM, et al. (2009) ESR stratigraphically chronological study of the gravel layer in Yangluo town, Wuhan city. Earth and Environment 37: 56–61. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Merritts DJ, Vincent KR, Wohl EE (1994) Long river profiles, tectonism, and eustasy: A guide to interpreting fluvial terraces. Journal of Geophysical Research 99: 14031–14050. DOI: 10.1029/94JB00857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pan BT, Liu XF, Gao HS, et al. (2007) Dating and genesis of the upper Weihe River terraces in Longxi basin, China. Progress in Natural Science 17(11): 1334–1340.Google Scholar
  33. Pan BT, Wang JP, Gao HS, et al. (2005) Paleomagnetic dating of the topmost terrace in Kouma, Henan and its indication to the Yellow River’s running through Sanmen Gorges. Chinese Science Bulletin 50(7): 657–664. DOI: 10.1360/03wd0290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prell WL (1982) Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Quaternary of Hole 502B: Evidence for two modes of isotopic variability. Initial Reports of the DSDP 68: 455–464. DOI: 10.2973/dsdp.proc.68.120.1982Google Scholar
  35. Qi YM, Tan HQ, Liang X (2007) Geomorphologic study of Anhui section of Changjiang River using Landsat TM image. Chinese Geographical Science 17(3): 250–256. DOI: 10.1007/s11769-007-0250-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Qiao YS, Guo ZT, Hao QZ, et al. (2003) Loess-soil sequences in southern Anhui Province: Magneto stratigraphy and paleoclimatic significance. Chinese Science Bulletin 48(19): 2088–2093. DOI: 10.1360/03wd0183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ren ME (1957) General introduction of the Yangtze River. Geography Knowledge 3: 1–6. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. Richardson NJ, Densmore AL, Seward D, et al. (2010) Did incision of the Three Gorges begin in the Eocene? Geology 38(6): 551–554. DOI: 10.1130/G30527.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ruddiman WF, Raymo ME, Martinson DG, et al. (1989) Pleistocene evolution: Northern hemisphere ice sheet and North Atlantic Ocean. Paleoceanography 4(4): 353–412. DOI: 10.1029/PA004i004p00353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sancho C, Calle M, Peña-Monné JL, et al. (2016) Dating the Earliest Pleistocene alluvial terrace of the Alcanadre River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain): Insights into the landscape evolution and involved processes. Quaternary International 407(Part A): 86–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2015.10.050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shen YC (1965) River Valley Morphology of Upstream of the Yangtze River. Science Press, Beijing, China. pp 140–147. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Stange KM, Balen RV, Vandenberghe J, et al. (2013) External controls on quaternary fluvial incision and terrace formation at the segre river, southern pyrenees. Tectonophysics 602(5): 316–331. DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.10.033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Su H, Ming QZ, Pan BT, et al. (2013) The analysis and discussions on the chronological frame of the Jinshajiang River valley-drainage. Journal of Mountain Science 31(6): 685–692. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. Tissoux H, Falgures C, Voinchet P, et al. (2007) Potential use of Ti-center in ESR dating of fluvial sediment. Quaternary Geochronology 2(1–4): 367–372. DOI: 10.1016/j.quageo.2006.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vandenberghe J (1995) Timescales, climate and river development. Quaternary Science Reviews 14: 631–638. DOI: 10.1016/0277-3791(95)00043-OCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang XY, Vandenberghe J, Yi SW, et al. (2015) Cliamtedependent fluvial architecture and processes on a suborbital timescale in areas of rapid tectonic uplift: An example from the NE Tibetan Plateau. Global and Planetary Change 133: 318–329. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.09.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Westaway R, Bridgland DR, Sinha R, et al. (2009) Fluvial sequences as evidence for landscape and climatic evolution in the Late Cenozoic: A synthesis of data from IGCP 518. Global and Planetary Change 68(4): 237–253. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.02.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Xiang F, Zhu LD, Wang CS, et al. (2007) Quaternary sediment in the Yichang area: Implications for the formation of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. Geomorphology 85(3): 249–258. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.03.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yan XS (1999) Landforms and neotectonics of the Qingyijiang River area and the Shuiyang River area in the southern Anhui province. Journal of Nanjing Teachers College 15: 118–124. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  50. Yan XS, Huang ZQ (1991) Quaternary sedimentation and paleoenvironmental changes of the Qingyijiang River area and the Shuiyang River area in the southern Anhui province. Journal of Xuzhou Teachers College 9: 58–64. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  51. Yang DY (1985) The primary study of the dating and causes of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River flowing eastwards into the sea. Journal of Nanjing University (Natural Science Edition) 21(1): 155–165. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. Yang DY, Wu SG, Wang YF (1996) On river terraces of the upper reaches of the Huanghe River and change of the river system. Scientia Geographic Sinica 16(2): 137–143. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  53. Yang H, Zhao QG, Li XP et al. (1996a) ESR dating of eolian sediment and red earth series from Xuancheng profile in Anhui Province. Acta Pedologica Sinica 33(3): 293–300. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  54. Yue LP, Lei XY, Qu HJ (1997) The age of terrace development in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. Geological Review 43(2): 186–192. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. Zhao ZJ, Liu Y, Chen Y et al. (2013) Quaternary fluvial incision rates of the Western Sichuan Plateau inferred from ESR chronology. Journal of Lanzhou University (Natural Sciences) 49(2): 160–165, 172. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  56. Zheng HB, Clift PD, Wang P, et al. (2013) Pre-Miocene birth of the Yangtze River. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(19): 7556–7561. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1216241110CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chun-sheng Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chen-qi Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shao-chen Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guang-lai Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Li Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Li-hui Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Territorial Resources and TourismAnhui Normal UniversityWuhuChina
  2. 2.Anhui Key Laboratory of Natural Disaster Process and Preventing and ControllingWuhuChina

Personalised recommendations