Spatial patterns and storage composition of woody debris in a natural secondary forest dominated by Pinus tabulaeformis on Loess Plateau, China
- 55 Downloads
Woody debris (WD) is an important part of natural Pinus tabulaeformis mixed stands, and it affects the forest ecosystem stability and development. The WD spatial patterns are especially important structural characteristics that can provide insights into forest dynamics. In this paper, the WD storage, WD spatial patterns and WD associations among the main species were examined in the natural secondary forest on Loess Plateau in northwest China. Data were collected in a 1 ha (100 m × 100 m) permanent plot, and all the trees with a diameter at breast height of more than 3 cm were measured and stem-mapped. Ripley’s K functions from the spatial-point-pattern-analysis method were used to analyze the spatial distribution and associations. The results showed that: (1) The total storage of WD was 10.73 t/ha, fallen wood was the main source of WD, and the majority diameters were greater than 20 cm, and in intermediate levels of decay; (2) The overall spatial pattern was closely related to the spatial scale, which exhibited an aggregated pattern on a small scale, and a random pattern on a large scale. The spatial patterns of coarse woody debris also gradually transitioned from an aggregated pattern in fine scales to a random pattern in broader spatial scales, which matched the overall spatial pattern. The spatial intensity was gradually decreased with the increasing diameters, and increased with the decomposition classes; (3) The WD of Pinus tabulaeformis species was negatively associated with Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana on a small scale but positively associated with these species on a large scale. The spatial pattern and interspecies relations were the results of long-term interactions between the natural secondary forest community and the surrounding natural environment. These findings would provide a scientific basis for the sustainable management and protection of natural secondary forest ecosystems on Loess Plateau.
KeywordsSpatial pattern Spatial association Storage Woody debris Natural secondary forest Loess Plateau
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31300538, 31400540 and 31170587), the Special Foundation of Basic Scientific Research Professional Expenses in Northwest A&F University (Grant No. QN2013082), and the Youth development projects of the second basic scientific research business expenses of Northwest A&F University (Grant No. 2452015335). The authors thank all the individuals who provided helpful suggestions and critical comments on this manuscript.
- Besag J (1977) Contribution to the discussion on Dr. Ripley’s paper. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series BStatistical Methodology 39: 193–195.Google Scholar
- Chen H, Harmon ME (1992) Dynamic study of coarse woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 3(2): 99–104. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Chen H, Xu ZB (1991) Current, situation and tendency of coarse woody debris ecological research. Institute of applied ecology, Academia sinica 2(1): 89–91. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Greig-Smith P (1964) Quantitative plant ecology. Butter Worth and Co., Ltd., London, Grit Britain, 1964, 256.Google Scholar
- Harmon ME, Franklin JF (1986) Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate Ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research 15Google Scholar
- He F, Wang DX, Zhang SZh, et al. (2011) Reserves of litter and woody debris of two main forests in Xiaolong Mountains, Gansu, China. Journal of Application and Environment 17(1): 46–50. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Hood IA, Beets PN, Kimberley MO, et al. (2004) Colonisation of podocarp coarse woody debris by decomposer basidiomycete fungi in an indigenous forest in the central North Island of New Zealand. Forest Ecology and Management 196(2-3): 311325. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.03.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hou JH, Mi XC, Liu CR, et al. (2004) Spatial patterns and associations in a Quercus-Betula forest in northern China. Journal of Vegetation Science 15(3): 407–414. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2004.tb02278.xGoogle Scholar
- Liu YY, Jin GZ (2010) Spatial point pattern analysis for coarse woody debris in a mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing’an Mountains, China. Acta ecology sinica 30(22): 6072–6081. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Moeur M (1993) Characterizing spatial patterns of trees using stem mapped data. Forest Science 39: 756–775.Google Scholar
- Meyer P (1999) Totholzuntersuchungen in nordwestdeuts chen Naturwadern: Methodik und erste Ergebnisse. European Journal of Forest Research 118(1): 167–180. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02768985Google Scholar
- Müller-Using S, Bartsch N (2003) Totholzdynamik eines buchenbestandes (Fagus sylvatica L.) im solling. nachlieferung, ursache, und zersetzung von totholz. Allgemeine Forst Und Jagdzeitung, 174: 122–130. (In German)Google Scholar
- Rademacher C, Winter S (2003) Totholz im Buchen-Urwald: Generische Vorhersagen des Simulations modells before coarse woody debris zur Menge, ramlichen Verteilung und Verfvgbarkeit. European Journal of Forest Research 122: 337–357. (In German) http://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-003-0002-6Google Scholar
- Ripley D (1977) Modeling spatial pattern. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series B) 3: 172–212.Google Scholar
- Song ZW, Tang JW (2008) Coarse woody debris marls and its nutrients stock in tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna. Chinese Journal of Ecology 27(12): 2033–2041. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Stevens V (1997) The Ecological Role of Coarse Woody Debris: an Overview of the Ecological Importance of CWD in BC Forests. Research Program, BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC, Canada Working Paper.Google Scholar
- Yan ER, Wang XH, Hang JJ (2005) Concept and classification of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem. Acta Ecological Sinica 25(1): 158–167. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang HL, Yang WQ, Wang M, et al. (2015) Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus storage of woody debris in headwater streams in an alpine forest in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Acta Ecological Sinica 36(7): 1–8. (In Chinese)Google Scholar