Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 14, Issue 9, pp 1728–1738 | Cite as

The properties of dilute debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow in different flow regimes in open channels

  • Yan Liu
  • Hui-feng Wang
  • Hua-yong Chen
  • Kai-heng Hu
  • Xie-kang Wang


Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to test the analogues of hyper-concentrated flow and dilute debris flow in an open flume. Flow fields, velocity profiles and turbulent parameters were obtained under different conditions. Results show that the flow regime depends on coarse grain concentration. Slurry with high fine grain concentration but lacking of coarse grains behaves as a laminar flow. Dilute debris flows containing coarse grains are generally turbulent flows. Streamlines are parallel and velocity values are large in laminar flows. However, in turbulent flows the velocity diminishes in line with the intense mixing of liquid and eddies occurring. The velocity profiles of laminar flow accord with the parabolic distribution law. When the flow is in a transitional regime, velocity profiles deviate slightly from the parabolic law. Turbulent flow has an approximately uniform distribution of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. The ratio of turbulent kinetic energy to the kinetic energy of time-averaged flow is the internal cause determining the flow regime: laminar flow (/ < 0.1); transitional flow (0.1 < / < 1); and turbulent flow (/ > 1). Turbulent kinetic energy firstly increases with increasing coarse grain concentration and then decreases owing to the suppression of turbulence by the high concentration of coarse grains. This variation is also influenced by coarse grain size and channel slope. The results contribute to the modeling of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow.


Hyper-concentrated flow Debris flow Flow regime Velocity profile Turbulent kinetic energy Open channel 


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The research was supported by the Open Foundation of Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 201503), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KZZD-EW-05-01),the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51579163) and the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University (Grant No. SKHL1426).


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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River EngineeringSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentCASChengduChina

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