Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 581–594 | Cite as

Observed deformation characteristics of a deep excavation for the spring area in Jinan, China

  • Ding-wen Zhang
  • Ji-cheng Shu
  • Jian-ping Sun


The observed deflections and internal forces of pile-anchor retaining excavation were studied in spring area in Jinan city of China. Based on field measured data, the ground surface settlement, deflection of retaining piles and wall, internal force analysis of concrete piles, axial anchoring forces, groundwater table, and the deformation of surround building and pipelines were investigated. The results indicates that the combining application of concrete piles, jet grouting columns and anchors support system can effectively control excavation-induced surface ground settlements. The field maximum lateral wall deflections are between 0.02% and 0.19% of the excavation depth due to the competitive site conditions. The bending moment-depth relationship curve is S-type. Groundwater leakage results in the sharp drop in groundwater level, which is part of the reasons for the adjacent building settlement. The axial anchoring forces of the upper layer of anchors increase gradually during the excavation, but those of the lower layer of anchors slightly reduced firstly and then tend to be stable during the excavation procedure. In comparison with the histories of excavation cases, the small lateral wall deflection in this study results from the favorable site condition and the relative rigidity of the retaining structure system.


Spring area Excavation Pile anchor system Ground settlement Horizontal displacement 



Water content


Unit weight of soil


Void ratio


Plastic index


Liquid index


Permeability of soil


Constrained modulus


Cohesion intercept


Friction angle


Coefficient of compressibility


Standard penetration test


Heavy dynamic penetration test


Excavation depth


Ground settlement

δh, max

Maximum piles deflections

δv max

Maximum ground settlement


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This work was supported by the Chinese Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2242014R30020), and the Personnel Training Fund for Outstanding Young Teacher of Qinglan Project of Higher Education in Jiangsu Province, China. Concrete suggestions from the reviewers, the Editors are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringShangdongJianzhu UniversityJinanChina

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