Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 13, Issue 9, pp 1527–1543 | Cite as

Outlining a stepwise, multi-parameter debris flow monitoring and warning system: an example of application in Aizi Valley, China

  • Ning-sheng Chen
  • Javed Iqbal Tanoli
  • Gui-sheng HuEmail author
  • Feng-niang Wang
  • Cheng-lin Yang
  • Hai-tao Ding
  • Na He
  • Tao Wang
Article

Abstract

In recent years, the increasing frequency of debris flow demands enhanced effectiveness and efficiency of warning systems. Effective warning systems are essential not only from an economic point of view but are also considered as a frontline approach to alleviate hazards. Currently, the key issues are the imbalance between the limited lifespan of equipment, the relatively long period between the recurrences of such hazards, and the wide range of critical rainfall that trigger these disasters. This paper attempts to provide a stepwise multi-parameter debris flow warning system after taking into account the shortcomings observed in other warning systems. The whole system is divided into five stages. Different warning levels can be issued based on the critical rainfall thresholds. Monitoring starts when early warning is issued and it continues with debris flow near warning, triggering warning, movement warning and hazard warning stages. For early warning, historical archives of earthquake and drought are used to choose a debris flow-susceptible site for further monitoring. Secondly, weather forecasts provide an alert of possible near warning. Hazardous precipitation, model calculation and debris flow initiation tests, pore pressure sensors and water content sensors are combined to check the critical rainfall and to publically announce a triggering warning. In the final two stages, equipment such as rainfall gauges, flow stage sensors, vibration sensors, low sound sensors and infrasound meters are used to assess movement processes and issue hazard warnings. In addition to these warnings, community-based knowledge and information is also obtained and discussed in detail. The proposed stepwise, multi-parameter debris flow monitoring and warning system has been applied in Aizi valley China which continuously monitors the debris flow activities.

Keywords

Debris Flow Monitoring system Warning system Aizi Valley Rainfall threshold 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abancó C, Hürlimann M, Moya J, et al. (2014) Analysis of the ground vibration generated by debris flows and other torrential processes at the rebaixader monitoring site (central Pyrenees, Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 14: 929–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adhikari DP, Koshimizu S (2005) Debris flow disaster at Larcha, upper Bhotekoshi Valley, central Nepal. Island Arc 14: 410–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aleotti P (2004) A warning system for rainfall-induced shallow failures. Engineering Geology 73: 247–265. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.01.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arattano M, Marchi L (2008) Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning. Sensors 8: 2436–2452. DOI: 10.3390/s8042436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berti M, Simoni A (2005) Experimental evidences and numerical modelling of debris flow initiated by channel runoff. Landslides 2: 171–182. DOI: 10.1007/s10346-005-0062-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Camp JD, Miller EM (1970) Flood of August 1969 in Virginia. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report. p 120.Google Scholar
  7. Chang C-W, Lin P-S, Tsai C-L (2011) Estimation of sediment volume of debris flow caused by extreme rainfall in Taiwan. Engineering Geology 123: 83–90. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen NS, Chen M, Li J, et al. (2015) Effects of human activity on erosion, sedimentation and debris flow activity-A case study of the Qionghai Lake watershed, southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The Holocene 25: 973–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen NS, Lu Y, Zhou HB, et al. (2014) Combined impacts of antecedent earthquakes and droughts on disastrous debris flows. Journal of Mountain Science 11: 1507–1520. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-013-2594-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen NS, Hu GS, Deng W, et al. (2013) On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 13: 795–808. DOI: 10.5194/nhess-13-1-2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen NS, Hu GS, Deng MF, et al. (2011) Impact of earthquake on debris flow -a case study on the Wenchuan Earthquake. Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami 5: 493–508. DOI: 10.1142/S1793431111001212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen NS, Zhou W, Yang CL, et al. (2010) The processes and mechanism of failure and debris flow initiation for gravel soil with different clay content. Geomorphology 121: 222–230. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.04.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen NS, Yang CL, Zhou W, et al. (2009) The critical rainfall characteristics for torrents and debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. Journal of Mountain Science 6: 362–372. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-009-1064-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chien CY, Chen TC, Yu FC, et al. (2005) Rainfall duration and debris-flow initiated studies for real-time monitoring. Environmental Geology 47: 715–724. (In Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen NS, Gao YC, Li DF (2004) Conflux process analysis of desastrous debris flow in Qiongshan Ravine, Danba, Sichuan Province. Journal of Natural Disasters 13: 104–108. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Chou HT, Cheung YL, Zhang SC, et al. (2007) Calibration of infrasound monitoring system and acoustic characteristics of debris-flow movement by field studies. Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp 571–580.Google Scholar
  17. Cui P, Chen XQ, Zhu YY, et al. (2011) The Wenchuan earthquake (May 12, 2008), Sichuan province, China, and resulting geohazards. Natural Hazards 56: 19–36. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-009-9392-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cui P, Zhou GGD, Zhu XH, et al. (2013) Scale amplification of natural debris flows caused by cascading landslide dam failures. Geomorphology 182: 173–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. D'Amato AG, Giannecchini R, Puccinelli A (2004) The influence of the geological and geomorphological settings on shallow landslides. An example in a temperate climate environment: the June 19, 1996 event in northwestern Tuscany (Italy). Engineering Geology 73: 215–228. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.01.005Google Scholar
  20. Delgado J, Garrido J, López CC, et al. (2011) On far field occurrence of seismically induced landslides. Engineering Geology 123: 204–213. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ge Y, Cui P, Chen X, et al. (2013) Characteristics, Hazards, and Mitigation of Debris Flows Along Min River after the Wenchuan Earthquake. Earthquake-Induced Landslides 10: 975–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Godard V, Lavé J, Carcaillet J, et al. (2010) Spatial distribution of denudation in Eastern Tibet and regressive erosion of plateau margins. Tectonophysics 491: 253–274. DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.10.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Griffiths PG, Webb RH, Melis TS (2004) Initiation and Frequency of Debris Flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Journal of Geophysical Research 109: 1–15. DOI: 10.1029/2003JF000077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. He N, Chen NS, Zhu YH, et al. (2013) Research on influential factors and dynamic characteristics of a debris flow in Aizi Gully. Journal of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering 11: 12–16. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Hervás J (2003) Lessons Learnt from Landslide Disasters in Europe. [http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/eusoils_docs/other/eur20558EN.pdf]Google Scholar
  26. Hu K, Cui P, Wang C, et al. (2010) Characteristic rainfall for warning of debris flows. Journal of Mountain Science 7: 207–214. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-010-2022-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hu K, Ge Y, Cui P, et al. (2010) Preliminary analysis of extra-large-scale debris flow disaster in Zhouqu County of Gansu Province. Journal of Mountain Science 28: 628–634. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Hürlimann M, Mcardell BW, Rickli C (2015) Field and laboratory analysis of the runout characteristics of hillslope debris flows in Switzerland. Geomorphology 232: 20–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hürlimann M, Abancó C, Moya J, et al. (2011) Debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Description of instrumentation, first experiences and preliminary results. Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment 553–562. DOI: 10.4408/IJEGE.2011-03.B-061Google Scholar
  30. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2012) Research Report on Characteristics and Control of Aizi Gully Debris flow of Baihetan Hydropower Station Near-zone Area. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (1990) Observation research of Jiangjia gully debris flow in Yunnan province. Science Press, Beijing, China. pp 160–163. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Iverson RM, George DL, Allstadt K, et al. (2015) Landslide mobility and hazards: Implications of the 2014 oso disaster. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 412: 197–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.12.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Iverson R (1997) The physics of debris flows. Reviews of Geophysics 35: 245–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jakob DM Hungr O (2005) Debris-flow hazards and related phenomena. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg pp 37–38.Google Scholar
  35. Kean JW, Staley DM, Cannon SH (2011) In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions. Journal of Geophysical Research Earth Surface 116: 759–775.Google Scholar
  36. Koschuch R, Jocham P, Hübl J (2015) One Year Use of High-Frequency RADAR Technology in Alpine Mass Movement Monitoring: Principles and Performance for Torrential Activities. In: Lollino G, Arattano M, Rinaldi M, et al. (eds.) Engineering Geology for Society and Territory-Volume 3: River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 69–72.Google Scholar
  37. Lin CW, Chang WS, Liu SH, et al. (2011) Landslides triggered by the 7 august 2009 typhoon morakot in southern taiwan. Engineering Geology 123: 3–12. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.06.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lin M, Jeng F (2000) Characteristics of hazards induced by extremely heavy rainfall in Central Taiwan-Typhoon Herb. Engineering Geology 58: 191–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu J, You Y, Chen X, et al. (2014) Characteristics and hazard prediction of large-scale debris flow of Xiaojia Gully in Yingxiu Town, Sichuan Province, China. Engineering Geology 180: 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu J, Cheng Z, Li Q (2013) Meteorological conditions for frequent debris flows from Guxiang Glacier, Mount Nyenchen Tanglha, China. Mountain Research and Development 33: 95–102. DOI: 10.1659/mrd-journal-d-12-00053.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yao LK (1988) A research on the calculation of critical rainfall with frequency of debris flow and torrential rain. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 2: 72–78. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Liu C, Miao T, Chen H, et al. (2011) Basic feature and origin of the “8• 8” mountain torrent-debris flow disaster happened in Zhouqu County, Gansu, China, Aug. 8, 2010. Geological Bulletin of China 30: 141–150. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Liu X, LU X, Su P (2004) Characteristics and hazard assessment of debris flow in Chayuan Gully of Wenchuan County in Sichuan. Journal of Natural Disasters 13: 66–71. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. Liu X, Wang Q, Zhang D, et al. (2003) Debris Flow Disasters Occurred on June 20, 2003 in Puge County of Sichuan. Journal of Catastrophology 18: 46–50. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Liu XL (2010) Quantitative assessment on site-specific debris flow hazard and application. Journal of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Engineering 30: 241–245. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Lu GH, Ou GQ, Pan H, et al. (2014) A Review of the Study on Debris Flow Monitoring and Early Warning. Journal of Catastrophology 29: 150–156. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. Lu Y, Chen NS, Lv LQ, et al. (2013) Genesis analysis and enlightenment of catastrophic debris flow in Hefanggou Gully of Linxiang, Hunan Province. Yangtze River 44: 28–32. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Milne F, Werritty A, Davies M, et al. (2009) A recent debris flow event and implications for hazard management. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 42: 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moody JA, Martin DA (2001) Post-fire, rainfall intensity–peak discharge relations for three mountainous watersheds in the western USA. Hydrological Processes 15: 2981–2993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pérez FL (2001) Matrix granulometry of catastrophic debris flows (December 1999) in central coastal Venezuela. CATENA 45: 163–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pingyi Z, Luo DF, Kou YZ (1997) Debris flow development trend of Guxiang Ravine, Xizang. Journal of Mountain Research 8: 75–80. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. Restrepo P, Jorgensen DP, Cannon SH, et al. (2008) Joint NOAA/NWS/USGS prototype debris flow warning system for recently burned areas in southern California. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89: 1845–1851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Saito H, Nakayama D, Matsuyama H (2010) Relationship between the initiation of a shallow landslide and rainfall intensity—duration thresholds in Japan. Geomorphology 118: 167–175. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.12.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Santolo ASD, Pellegrino AM, Evangelista A (2010) Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of debris flow. Natural Hazards & Earth System Science 10: 2507–2514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sassa K (1998) Mechanisms of landslide triggered debris flows. Environmental Forest Science Springer Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp 499–518. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-5324-9_53Google Scholar
  56. Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Wang F (1997) Mechanism and risk assessment of landslide-triggered-debris flows: lesson from the 1996.12. 6 Otari debris flow disaster, Nagano, Japan. Landslide Risk Assessment, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Landslide Risk Assessment. Honolulu, USA. pp 19–21.Google Scholar
  57. Schimmel A, Hübl J (2015a) Approach for an early warning system for debris flow based on acoustic signals. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory 3: 55–58. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09054-2_11Google Scholar
  58. Schimmel A, Hübl J (2015b) Automatic detection of debris flows and debris floods based on a combination of infrasound and seismic signals. Landslides: 1–16.Google Scholar
  59. Scott KM, Vallance JW, Kerle N, et al. (2005) Catastrophic precipitation-triggered lahar at Casita volcano, Nicaragua: occurrence, bulking and transformation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30: 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sepulveda SA, Rebolledo S, Vargas G (2006) Recent catastrophic debris flows in Chile: Geological hazard, climatic relationships and human response. Quaternary International 158: 83–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2006.05.031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sheridan MF, Connor C, Connor L, et al. (2007) October 2005 Debris flows at Panabaj, Guatemala: hazard assessment. AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts 1: 07. AGU Spring Meeting. AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts V33A-07.Google Scholar
  62. Smolíková J, Blahut J, Vilímek V (2015) Analysis of rainfall preceding debris flows on the Smedavská hora Mt., Jizerské hory Mts., Czech Republic. Landslides: 1–14.Google Scholar
  63. Stähli M, Sättele M, Huggel C, et al. (2015) Monitoring and prediction in early warning systems for rapid mass movements. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences 15: 905–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stolle A, Langer M, Blöthe JH, et al. (2015) On predicting debris flows in arid mountain belts. Global & Planetary Change 126: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Su PC, Wei FQ, Xie T (2012) Causal analysis of debris flow on August 18, 2010 in Gongshan, Yunnan Province and its harm to the development and utilization of mineral resources. Resources Science 34: 1248–1256. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  66. Takahashi T (1991) Debris flow. IAHR Monograph. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  67. Tan Wanpei (1992) Study on regional critical rainfall indices of debris flow in Sichuan Province. Journal of Catastrophology 7(2): 37–42. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  68. Tang C, TWJV Asch, Chang M, et al. (2012) Catastrophic debris flows on 13 August 2010 in the Qingping area, Southwestern China: The combined effects of a strong earthquake and subsequent rainstorms. Geomorphology 139-140: 559–576. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.12.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tsou CY, Feng ZY, Chigira M (2011) Catastrophic landslide induced by typhoon Morakot, Shiaolin, Taiwan. Geomorphology 127: 166–178. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.12.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Turnbull B, Bowman ET, Mcelwaine JN (2014) Debris flows: Experiments and modelling. Comptes Rendus Physique 16: 86–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wardhono A, Rondhi M, Irawan JF, et al. (2010) Identification and mapping of disaster risk of flash floods in jember regency -east java, indonesia. Asia International Symposium, Microdis and Hue University, Vietnam.Google Scholar
  72. Wieczorek GF (1987) Effect of rainfall intensity and duration on debris flows in central Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Reviews in Engineering Geology 7: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wu CH, Chen SC, and Chou HT, ey al. (2011) Geomorphologic characteristics of catastrophic landslides during typhoon morakot in the Kaoping Watershed, taiwan. Engineering Geology 123: 13–21 DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.04.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wu JS, Kang ZC, Tian LQ, et al. (1990) Observational study for the debris flow in Jiangjia Valley of Yunnan Province. Science Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  75. Xiaohui S (2013) Human factors in natural disasters: Debris flows, droughts, and floods. Chinese Research Perspectives on the Environment, Brill Netherlands 1: 33–47. DOI: 10.1163/9789004249547_004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yong Y, Chen XZ, Liu JF (2011) “8.13” extra large debris flow disaster in Wenjia gully of Qingping Township, Mianzhu, Sichuan Province. Journal of Catastrophology 26: 68–72. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  77. Yu B, Zhu Y, Wang T, et al. (2016) A 10-min rainfall prediction model for debris flows triggered by a runoff induced mechanism. Environmental Earth Sciences 75: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yu GQ, Zhang MS, Wang GL, et al. (2015) A review of “8.8” debris flow in zhouqu. Springer International Publishing, Cham Switzerland. pp 505–508. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09057-3_83Google Scholar
  79. Zanchetta G, Sulpizio R, Pareschi MT, et al. (2004) Characteristics of May 5–6, 1998 volcaniclastic debris flows in the Sarno area (Campania, southern Italy): relationships to structural damage and hazard zonation. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 133: 377–393. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00409-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhou W, Tang C (2014) Rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation in the Wenchuan earthquake-stricken area, southwestern China. Landslides 11: 877–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ning-sheng Chen
    • 1
  • Javed Iqbal Tanoli
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gui-sheng Hu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Feng-niang Wang
    • 1
  • Cheng-lin Yang
    • 1
  • Hai-tao Ding
    • 1
  • Na He
    • 1
  • Tao Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyAbbottabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations