Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 870–881 | Cite as

Weathering and soils formation on different parent materials in Golestan Province, Northern Iran

  • Maryam Mahmoodi
  • Farhad KhormaliEmail author
  • Arash Amini
  • Shamsollah Ayoubi
Article

Abstract

Geochemical, mineralogical, and micromorphological characteristics of soils and their relevant parent rocks including loess, ignimbrite, sandstone and limestone were investigated to identify the soil-parent material uniformity and the weathering degree of soils in Golestan Province, northern Iran. Highly developed Calcixerolls and moderately developed Haploxerepts were formed on loess and limestone, respectively. In contrast, the soils formed on ignimbrite and sandstone were non-developed Entisols. Illite was the dominant clay mineral found in ignimbrite and sandstone in both the A horizon and parent material. In loess derived soils however, smectite was dominant especially in the Bt horizon compared to its parent material indicating partly to its pedogenic formation. In limestone, illite and vermiculite were dominant both in the A and C horizons. Ti/Zr ratio proved that the studied soils were closely related to their underlying parent materials geochemically. Chemical index of alteration (CIA), micromorphological index of soil development (MISECA), smectite/illite+chlorite ratio and magnetic susceptibility were applied to investigate the degree of soil development. Results showed that the most and the least developed soils were those formed on loess deposits and limestone, respectively. Application of the different geochemical and pedogenetic approaches was proved to be useful in identifying the relevance of soils to their underlying parent materials and also their degree of development.

Keywords

Parent material Soil formation Weathering index Loess Iran 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alonzo P, Dorronsoro C, González M, et al. (1991) Homogeneity/heterogeneity in alluvial terraces materials Tormes River. Soil and Plant 1: 775–791.Google Scholar
  2. Anda M, Chittleborough DJ, Fitzpatrick RW (2009) Assessing parent material uniformity of a red and black soil complex in the landscapes. Catena 78: 142–153. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena. 2009.03.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banaei MH (1998) Soil moisture and temperature regime map of Iran. Soil and Water Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Iran.Google Scholar
  4. Berner RA, Kothavala Z (2001) GEOCARB III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal Science 301: 182–204. DOI: 10.2475/ajs.301.2.182AJSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birkeland PW (1984) Soils and Geomorphology. Oxford University press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Bullock P, Federoff N, Jongerius A, et al. (1985) Handbook for soil thin section description. Waine Research Publications, Wolverhampton, UK.Google Scholar
  7. Chapman HD (1965) Cation exchange capacity. In: Black CA (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp 891–901.Google Scholar
  8. Cui J, Liu C, Li Z, et al. (2012) Long term changes in topsoil chemical properties under centuries of cultivation after reclamation of coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Soil and Tillage Research. 123:50–60. DOI: 10.1016/j.still 2012.03.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dearing JA (1999) Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility, Using the Bartington MS2 System. 2nd ed. Chi Publishing Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  10. Dixon J, Hartshon A, Heimsath A, et al. (2012) Chemical weathering response to tectonic forcing: A soils perspective from the san Gabriel Mountains, California. Earth and Planetary Sience Letters 323-324: 40–49 DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douglas LA (1989) Vermiculites. In: Dixon JB, Weed SB (Eds.), Minerals in Soil Environments, 2nd ed. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp 635–674.Google Scholar
  12. Franzini M, Leoni L, Saitta M (1975) Revision of analytical methodology for the fluorescence X based on complete correction of matrix effects. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol. 21: 99–108.Google Scholar
  13. Gleeson SA, Herrington RJ, Durango J, et al. (2004) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Cerro Matoso S. A. Ni laterite deposit, Montelibano, Colombia. Economic Geology 99: 1197–1213. DOI: 10.2113/99.6.1197Google Scholar
  14. Gokbulak F, Ozcan M (2008) Hydro-physical properties of soils developed from different parent materials. Geoderma 145: 376–380. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2008.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grimley DA, Arruda NK (2007) Observations of magnetite dissolution in poorly drained soils. Soil Science 172 (12):968–982. DOI:10.1097/ss.0b013e3181586b77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamdan J, Burnham CP (1996) The contribution of nutrients from parent material in three deeply weathered soils of Peninsular Malaysia. Geoderma 74: 2190233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Herrero J, Porta J (1987) Gypsiferous soils in the north–east of Spain. In: Fedoroff N, Bresson LM, Courty MA (eds.), Soil Micromorphology. Proc. 7th Int. Work. Meet. Soil Micromorph. Association Franc_aise pour l’Etude du Sol, Paris. pp 187–192.Google Scholar
  18. Jackson ML (1968) Weathering of primary and secondary minerals in soils. Trans. 9th. International Congress Soil Science, vol. 4, pp 281–292.Google Scholar
  19. Jackson ML (1975) Soil chemical analysis. Advanced Course. Univ. of Wisconsin, College of Agric., Dept. of Soils, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  20. Johns WD, Grim RE, Bradley F (1954) Quantitative estimation of clay minerals by diffraction methods. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 24: 242–251.Google Scholar
  21. Khormali F, Abtahi A (2003) Origin and distribution of clay minerals in calcareous arid and semi-arid soils of Fars Province, southern Iran. Clay Minerals 38: 511–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khormali F, Abtahi A, Mahmoodi S, Stoops G (2003) Argillic horizon development in calcareous soils of arid and semi-arid regions of southern Iran. Catena 53: 273–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khormali F, Ajami M, Ayoubi S (2006) Genesis and micromorphology of soils with loess parent material as affected by deforestation in a hillslope of Golestan province, Iran. In: 18th International Soil Meeting (ISM) on Soil Sustaining Life on Earth, Managing Soil and Technology, May 22–26, 2006. pp 149–151.Google Scholar
  24. Kittrick JA, Hope EW (1963) A procedure for the particle size separation of soils for X-ray diffraction analysis. Soil Science 96: 312–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kooijman AM, Jongejans J, Sevink J (2005) Parent material effects on Mediterranean woodland ecosystem in NE Spain. Catena 59: 55–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2004.05.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu W, Li C, Zhao Z, et al. (2013) Elemental and strontium isotop geochemistry of soil profiles developed on limestone and sandstone in karstic terrain on Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China: Implication for chemical weathering and parent materials. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 67-68: 138–152. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.02.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maher BA (1986) Characterization of soils by mineral magnetic measurements. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 42: 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maher BA (1998) Magnetic properties of modern soils and Quaternary loessic paleosol: paleoclimatic implication. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 137: 25–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mahjoory RA (1975) Clay mineralogy, physical and chemical properties of some soils in arid regions of Iran. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 39:1157–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Magaldi D, Tallini M (2000) A micromorphological index of soil development for Quaternary geology research. Catena 41: 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McLennan SM (1993) Weathering and global denudation. Journal of Geology 101: 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mehra OP, Jackson ML (1960) Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite citrate system with sodium bicarbonate. Clays Clay Miner 7: 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy CP (1986) Thin Section Preparation of Soils and Sediments. AB Academic Publishers, Berhamsted, UK.Google Scholar
  34. Nabel PE, Morrás HJM, Petersen N, Zech W (1999) Correlation of magnetic and lithologic features of soils and Quaternary sediments from the Undulating Pampa, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 12:311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nelson RE (1982) Carbonate and gypsum. In: Page AL (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp 181–199.Google Scholar
  36. Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element of lutites. Nature 299: 715–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ohta T, Arai H (2007) Statistical empirical index of chemical weathering in igneous rocks: A new tool for evaluating the degree of weathering. Chemical Geology 240: 280–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Olowolafe EA (2002) Soil parent materials and soil properties in two separate catchment areas on the Jos Plateau Nigeria. GeoJournal 56:201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salinity Laboratory Staff (1954) Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 60 Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  40. Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed. U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  41. Stoops G (2003) Guidelines for the Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections. SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  42. Taboada T, Cortizas AM, Garcia C, Rodeja EG (2006) Particlesize fractionation of titanium and zirconium during weathering and pedogenesis of granitic rocks in NW Spain. Geoderma 131: 218–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tejan-Kella MS, Chittleborough DJ, Fitzpatrick RW (1991) Weathering assessment of heavy minerals in age sequences of Australian sandy soils. Soil Science SocIety of AmErica Journal 55: 427–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wilding LP, Drees LR (1988) Removal of carbonate from thin sections for microfabric interpretations. In: Fedoroff N, Bresson LM, Courty MA (Eds.), Soil Micromorphology. Proc. 7th Int. Work. Meet. Soil Micromorph. Association Franc_aise pour l’Etude du Sol, Paris. pp 653–665.Google Scholar
  45. Wilson MJ (1999) The origin and formation of clay minerals in soils: past, present and future perspectives. Clay Minerals 34: 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Mahmoodi
    • 1
  • Farhad Khormali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arash Amini
    • 2
  • Shamsollah Ayoubi
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept of Soil ScienceGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourceGorganIran
  2. 2.Dept of GeologyGolestan UniversityGorganIran
  3. 3.Dept of Soil Science, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations