Skip to main content

Potentials of community-based tourism in transformations towards green economies after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in West China

Abstract

This study investigates the contrasting sceneries of community-based tourism after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and focuses on the potentials of tourism in transformations towards green economies. How are tourism and environment linked in a sustainable relationship? And how can potentials of community-based tourism be directed in transformations towards green economies? A qualitative research design is used to examine contrasting sceneries and specific green elements of community-based tourism in a Qiang people’s fortress village in Mao County, Sichuan Province, West China and further discuss how tourism can be compatible with human wellbeing through demonstrating a commitment to sustainable development. The study argues that potential economic, social and environmental costs of tourism need to be considered when evaluating the loss of community benefits toward sustainability. The green elements suggest the potential of community-based tourism in transformations towards green economies, involving green agricultural, green building, and green energy, green governance, green service and green consumption. This study will contribute to the debate about the relationship between tourism and environment sustainability in the green economies, as well as the critique of what can be learned for community development from green tourism in mountainous regions after the inevitable natural disasters.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Anand A, Chandan P, Singh RB (2012) Homestays at Korzok: Supplementing rural livelihoods and supporting green tourism in the Indian Himalayas. Mountain Research and Development 32(2): 126–136. DOI: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-11-00109.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andereck KL, Valentine KM, Knopf RC, et al. (2005) Residents' perceptions of community tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research 32(4): 1056–1076. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2005.03.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ap J (1990) Residents perceptions research on the social impacts of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 17(4): 610–616. DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(90)90032-M

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Babbie E (2004) Field Research. In: Babbie ER (eds.) The Practice of Social Research, CA: Wadsworth.

  5. Bastiasperez P (1995) Perceived impacts of tourism by residents. Annals of Tourism Research 22(1): 208–209. DOI: 10.10160160-7383(95)90067-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Booyens I (2010) Rethinking township tourism: Towards responsible tourism development in South African townships. Development Southern Africa 27(2): 273–287. DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(95)90067-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bloor M, Wood F (2006) Keywords in qualitative methods: A vocabulary of research concepts. London: Sage.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  8. Buckley R (2012) Sustainable tourism: Research and reality. Annals of Tourism Research 39(2): 528–546. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2012.02.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Cornet C (2015) Tourism development and resistance in China. Annals of Tourism Research 52: 29–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2015.02.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Charmaz K (2006) Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Chen WJ, Law SC (2012) What is the value of eco-tourism? An evaluation of forested trails for community residents and visitors. Tourism Economics 18(4): 871–885. DOI: 10.5367/te.2012.0146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Dearden P, Harron S (1994) Alternative tourism and adaptive change. Annals of Tourism Research 21(1): 81–102. DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(94)90006-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Dunford M, Li L (2011) Earthquake reconstruction in Wenchuan: Assessing the state overall plan and addressing the “forgotten phase”. Applied Geography 31(3): 998–1009. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.01.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Edgell D (2006) Managing sustainalbe tourism: A legacy for the future. New York: Haworth.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Frey N, George R (2010) Responsible tourism management: The missing link between business owners’ attitudes and behaviour in the Cape Town tourism industry. Tourism Management 31(5): 621–628. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.06.017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Fontana A, Frey J (2000) The Interview: From Structured Questions to Negotiated Text. In: Denzin NK and Lincoln YS (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research: Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

  17. Gulez S (1994) Green tourism -a case-study. Annals of Tourism Research 21(2): 413–415. DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(94)90061-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Gursoy D, Chi CG, Dyer P (2010) Locals’ attitudes toward mass and alternative tourism: The case of Sunshine Coast, Australia. Journal of Travel Research 49(3): 381–394. DOI: 10.1177/0047287509346853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gurung DB, Seeland K (2008) Ecotourism in Bhutan: Extending its benefits to rural communities. Annals of Tourism Research 35(2): 489–508. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2008.02.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hall CM (1997) Tourism in the Pacific Rim-Developments, Impacts and Markets (Second ed.). Melbourne: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Haukeland JV (2011) Tourism stakeholders’ perceptions of national park management in Norway. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 19(2): 133–153. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2010.517389

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hernandez-Mogollon JM, Campon-Cerro AM, Alves H (2013) Authenticity in environmental high-quality destinations: A relevant factor for green tourism demand. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 12(10): 1961–1970.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Hiwasaki L (2006) Community-based tourism: A pathway to sustainability for Japan’s protected areas. Society and Natural Resources 19(8): 675–692. DOI: 10.1080/08941920600801090

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Holladay PJ, Powell RB (2013) Resident perceptions of social–ecological resilience and the sustainability of community based tourism development in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(8): 1188–1211. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.776059

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Huang Y, Chen W, Liu JY (2012) Secondary geological hazard analysis in Beichuan after the Wenchuan earthquake and recommendations for reconstruction. Environmental Earth Sciences 66(4): 1001–1009. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-010-0612-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hunter C (1997) Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research 24(4): 850–867. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(97)00036-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Hunter C, Green H (1995) Tourism and the environment: a sustainable relationship? London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Hwang D, Stewart WP, Ko D (2012) Community behavior and sustainable rural tourism development. Journal of Travel Research 51(3): 328–334. DOI: 10.1177/0047287511410350

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Ikeda T, Song X (2007) A study on the actual developing state and future development possibilities of green tourism in Okinawa. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 6(1): 49–55. DOI: 10.3130/jaabe.6.49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Iorio M, Corsale A (2014) Community-based tourism and networking: Viscri, Romania. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 22(2): 234–255. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.802327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Jamal T, Camargo BA (2014) Sustainable tourism, justice and an ethic of care: toward the just destination. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 22(1): 11–30. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.786084

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Jia BT (2010) Qiang village in the aftermath of the 5•12 Wenchuan earthquake: Lessons from the mode of “Pin Tou Zhai”, Mao County, Sichuan. China's Ethnic Groups (12): 14–17. (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Jurowski C (2004) Tourism in destination communities. Tourism Management 25(5): 644–646. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2003.08.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Kajan E, Saarinen J (2013) Tourism, climate change and adaptation: A review. Current Issues in Tourism 16(2): 167–195. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2013.774323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kearney A (1994) Green tourism development in Scotland. Annals of Tourism Research 21(1): 153–155. DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(94)90014-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Kohler T, Pratt J, Debarbieux B, et al. (2012). Sustainable Mountain Development, Green Economy and Institutions. From Rio 1992 to Rio 2012 and beyond. Retrieved from mountain partnership: Available online at: http: //www.mountainpartnership.org/fileadmin/user_upload/mountain_partnership/docs/LOW_Global_Green_Economy_RIO20.pdf (Accessed date: 4 Nobember 2013)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kousis M (2000) Tourism and the environment: A social movements perspective. Annals of Tourism Research 27(2): 468–489. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00083-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Laing J, Frost W (2010) How green was my festival: Exploring challenges and opportunities associated with staging green events. International Journal of Hospitality Management 29(2): 261–267. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.10.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Law A, De Lacy T, Mc Grath GM, et al. (2012) Towards a green economy decision support system for tourism destinations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(6): 823–843. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2012.687740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Mair J, Jago L (2010) The development of a conceptual model of greening in the business events tourism sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(1): 77–94. DOI: 10.1080/09669580903291007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Mair J, Laing J (2012) The greening of music festivals: Motivations, barriers and outcomes. Applying the Mair and Jago model. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(5): 683–700. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2011.636819

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Merriam SB (2002) Qualitative research in practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  43. McBoyle G (1996) Green tourism and Scottish distilleries. Tourism Management 17(4): 255–263. DOI: 10.1016/0261-5177(96)00017-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Moscardo G, Konovalov E, Murphy L, et al. (2013) Mobilities, community well-being and sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(4): 532–556. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.785556

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Miller G (2001) The development of indicators for sustainable tourism: Results of a Delphi survey of tourism researchers. Tourism Management 22(4): 351–362. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00067-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Nelson C, Botterill D (2002) Evaluating the contribution of beach quality awards to the local tourism industry in Wales-the Green Coast Award. Ocean and Coastal Management 45(2-3): 157–170. DOI: 10.1016/S0964-5691(02)00053-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Nicholls S, Kang S (2012) Going green: the adoption of environmental initiatives in Michigan's lodging sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(7): 953–974. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2011.645577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Nunkoo R, Smith SLJ, Ramkissoon H (2013) Residents’ attitudes to tourism: a longitudinal study of 140 articles from 1984 to 2010. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(1): 5–25. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2012.673621

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. O’Brien KJ, Li L (2006) Rightful resistance in rural China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  50. Okazaki E (2008) A Community-Based Tourism Model: Its conception and use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16(5): 511–529. DOI: 10.1080/09669580802159594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Park E, Boo S (2010) An assessment of convention tourism's potential contribution to environmentally sustainable growth. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(1): 95–113. DOI: 10.1080/09669580903147936

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Patton MQ (2002) Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Ruhanen L (2013) Local government: facilitator or inhibitor of sustainable tourism development? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(1): 80–98. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2012.680463

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Ryan C, Stewart M (2009). Eco-tourism and luxury -the case of Al Maha, Dubai. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17(3): 287–301. DOI: 10.1080/09669580802366587

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Scheyvens R (2011) The challenge of sustainable tourism development in the Maldives: Understanding the social and political dimensions of sustainability. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 52(2): 148–164. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8373.2011.01447.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Singh RB, Mal S, Kala CP (2009) Community responses to mountain tourism: A case in Bhyundar Valley, Indian Himalaya. Journal of Mountain Science 6(4): 394–404. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-009-1054-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Swarbrooke J (1999) Sustainalbe tourism management. Wallingford: CABI.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Tang Y (2014) Travel motivation, destination image and visitor satisfaction of international tourists after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A structural modelling approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 19(11): 1260–1277. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2013.844181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Tosun C (2001) Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: The case of Turkey. Tourism Management 22(3): 289–303. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00060-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Tzschentke N, Kirk D, Lynch P (2008) Ahead of their time? Barriers to action in green tourism firms. Service Industries Journal 28(2): 167–178. DOI: 10.1080/02642060701842175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization (2012). Tourism in the Green Economy–Background Report, UNWTO, Madrid, Spain.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Vareiro LMD, Remoaldo PC, Cadima Ribeiro JA (2013) Residents' perceptions of tourism impacts in GuimarAes (Portugal): A cluster analysis. Current Issues in Tourism 16(6): 535–551. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2012.707175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Wang WM, Zhao LF, Li J, et al. (2008) Rupture process of the M(s) 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake of Sichuan, China. Chinese Journal of Geophysics–Chinese Edition 51(5): 1403–1410.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Weaver D (2006) Sustainalbe tourism: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Welford R, Ytterhus B (2004) Sustainable development and tourism destination management: A case study of the Lillehammer region, Norway. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 11(4): 410–422. DOI: 10.1080/13504500409469843

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Whitfield J, Dioko LAN, Webber DE (2014) Scoring environmental credentials: a review of UK conference and meetings venues using the greener venue framework. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 22(2): 299–318. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.809090

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Yeh ET, O’Brien KJ, Ye JZ (2013) Rural politics in contemporary China. The Journal of Peasant Studies 40(6): 915–928. DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2013.866097

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yong Tang.

Additional information

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6220-2543

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tang, Y. Potentials of community-based tourism in transformations towards green economies after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in West China. J. Mt. Sci. 13, 1688–1700 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-015-3510-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Green economy
  • Sustainable tourism
  • Green tourism
  • Community tourism
  • Wenchuan earthquake
  • Mountains