Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1085–1095 | Cite as

Effects of stand characteristics on tree species richness in and around a conservation area of northeast Bangladesh

  • Muha Abdullah Al Pavel
  • Sharif A. Mukul
  • Mohammad Belal Uddin
  • Kazuhiro Harada
  • Mohammed A. S. Arfin Khan
Article

Abstract

We investigated the effect of tree cover, forest patch and disturbances on tree species richness in a highly diverse conservation area of northeast Bangladesh. A systematic sampling protocol was adopted and 80 sub-plots from twenty five 1 ha plots were used for the vegetation survey. Linear regression analysis was performed to understand the effect of patch area, disturbances and tree cover on tree species richness. Ordination using Redundancy analysis (RDA) and Non-metric Multi Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) were also performed to explore the tree species compositional similarities along the stand characteristics gradient and locations of the sample plots. Our study revealed that, forest patch size has greater influence on species richness. Areas with medium level of disturbances have shown greater species richness. In constrained ordination the selected explanatory variables regulated the richness of common species. Our findings can be useful for better forest management and restoration of landscapes of conservation needs using ecologically important species.

Keywords

Biodiversity Disturbance Forest conservation Tree cover Forest patch Lawachara National Park 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

11629_2015_3501_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (145 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 145 KB.

References

  1. Acharya B (1999) Forest biodiversity assessment. a spatial analysis of tree species diversity in Nepal. ITC publication number 72. ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  2. Alamgir M, Mukul SA, Turton S (2015) Modelling spatial distribution of critically endangered Asian elephant and Hoolock gibbon in Bangladesh forest ecosystems under a changing climate. Applied Geography 60: 10–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biohabitats T (2012) Forest ecological assessment. Virginia Tech. Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  4. Bongers F, Poorter L, Hawthorne WD, Sheil D (2009) The intermediate disturbance hypothesis applies to tropical forests, but disturbance contributes little to tree diversity. Ecology Letters 12: 798–805. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01329.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brokaw N (1998) Fragments past, present and future. Tree 13: 382–383. DOI: 10.1111/j.14610248.2009.01329.xGoogle Scholar
  6. Burslem DFRP, Whitmore TC (1999) Species diversity, susceptibility to disturbance and tree population dynamics in tropical rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 10: 767–776. DOI: 10.2307/3237301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chazdon RL (2003) Tropical forest recovery: legacies of human impact and natural disturbances. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Sytematics 6: 51–71. DOI: 10.1078/1433-8319-00042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collins SL, Glenn SM, Gibson DJ (1995) Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76: 486–492. DOI: 10.2307/1941207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 24: 1302–1310. DOI: 10.1126/science.199.4335.1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Connell JH (1989) Some processes affecting the species composition in forest gaps. Ecology 70: 560–562. DOI: 10.2307/1940205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chowdhury MSH, Koile M (2010) An overview on the protected area system for forest conservation in Bangladesh. Journal of Forest Research 21: 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dalling JW, Muller-Landau HC, Wright SJ, Hubbell SP (2002) Role of dispersal in the recruitment limitation of neo-tropical pioneer species. Journal of Ecology 90: 714–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ehrlich PR, Wilson EO (1991) Biodiversity studies: science and policy. Science 253: 758–762. DOI: 10.1126/science.253.5021. 758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forman RTT (1995) Land mosaics, the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. p 632.Google Scholar
  15. Galanes IT, Thomlinson JR (2008) Relationships between spatial configuration of tropical forest patches and woody plant diversity in northeastern Puerto Rico. Plant Ecology 201: 101–113. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-2795-5_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. GOB (2010) Forest department official website. Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. http://www.bforest.gov.bd/land.php, accessed on February 15, 2015Google Scholar
  17. Holdgate M (1996) The ecological significance of biological diversity. Ambio 25: 409–416.Google Scholar
  18. Khan MASA, Uddin MB, Uddin MS, et al. (2007) Distribution and status of forests in the tropics: Bangladesh perspective. Proc. Pakistan Academy Science 44: 145–153.Google Scholar
  19. Kibria MG, Rahman SA, Imtiaj A, Sunderland T (2011) Extent and consequences of tropical forest degradation: successive policy options for Bangladesh. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 1: 29–37.Google Scholar
  20. Laurance WF, Bierregaard JRO (1997) Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management and conservation of fragmented communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, UK.Google Scholar
  21. Mukul SA (2008) The role of traditional forest practices in enhanced conservation and improved livelihoods of indigenous communities: case study from Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh. 1st International Conference on ‘Forest Related Traditional Knowledge and Culture in Asia. Seoul, Korea. pp 24–28.Google Scholar
  22. Mukul SA (2014) Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functions of traditional agroforestry systems: case study from three tribal communities in and around Lawachara National Park. In: Chowdhury MSH (ed.) Forest Conservation in Protected Areas of Bangladesh–Policy and Community Development Perspectives. Springer Switzerland. pp 171–179.Google Scholar
  23. Mukul SA, Herbohn J (2016) The impacts of shifting cultivation on secondary forests dynamics in tropics: a synthesis of the key findings and spatio temporal distribution of research. Environmental Science & Policy 55: 167–177. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2015.10.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mukul SA, Herbohn J, Rashid AZMM, Uddin MB (2014) Comparing the effectiveness of forest law enforcement and economic incentive to prevent illegal logging in Bangladesh. International Forest Review 16: 363–375. DOI: 10.1505/146554814812572485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mukul SA, Rashid AZMM, Quazi SA, et al. (2012) Local peoples’ response to co-management regime in protected areas: a case study from Satchari National Park, Bangladesh. Forests, Tress and Livelihoods 21: 16–29. DOI: 10.1080/14728028.2012.669132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mukul SA, Rashid AZMM, Uddin MB (2012) The role of spiritual beliefs in conserving wildlife species in religious shrines of Bangladesh. Biodiversity 13: 108–114. DOI: 10.1080/14888386.2012.694596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Murcia C (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 10: 58–62. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88977-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. NSP (2006) Management plans for Lawachara National Park. Nishorgo Support Project (NSP), Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  29. Pandey HN, Tripathi OP, Tripathi RS (2003) Ecological analysis of forest vegetation of Meghalaya. In: Bhatt et al. (eds.) Approaches for increasing agricultural Productivity in Hill and Mountain ecosystem. ICAR Barapani, Meghalaya, India.Google Scholar
  30. Pare S, Savadogo P, Tigabu M, et al. (2009) Regeneration and spatial distribution of seedling populations in Sudanian dry forests in relation to conservation status and human pressure. Tropical Ecology 50: 339–353.Google Scholar
  31. Pickett STA, White PS (eds.) (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press. San Diego.Google Scholar
  32. Raghubanshi AS, Tripathi A (2009) Effect of disturbance, habitat fragmentation and alien invasive plants on floral diversity in dry tropical forests of Vindhyan highland: a review. Tropical Ecology 50: 57–69.Google Scholar
  33. Ramadhanil R, Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Setiadi D (2008) Structure and composition of understory plant assemblages of six land use types in the Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bangladesh. Association of Plant Taxonomists 15: 1–12. DOI: 10.3329/bjpt.v15i1.911Google Scholar
  34. Rao P, Barik SK, Pandey HN, et al. (1990) Community composition and tree population structure in a sub-tropical broad-leaved forest along a disturbance gradient. Vegetation 88: 151–162. DOI: 10.1007/BF00044832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rahman SA, Baldauf C, Mollee EM, et al. (2013) Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges valley, Bangladesh. Science Journal of Agricultural Research & Management 2013: 1–6. DOI: 10.7237/sjarm/197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rahman SA, Foli S, Pavel MAA, et al. (2015) Forest, trees and agroforestry: better livelihoods and ecosystem services from multifunctional landscapes, International Journal of Development and Sustainability 4: 479–491.Google Scholar
  37. Sagar R, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS (2003) Tree species composition, dispersion and diversity along a disturbance gradient in a dry tropical forest region of India. Forest Ecology and Management 186: 61–71. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00235-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shrestha TK (1999) Nepal country report on biological diversity. Katmandu, IUCN, Nepal. p 133.Google Scholar
  39. Singh JS (2002) The biodiversity crisis: a multifaceted review. Current Science 82: 638–647.Google Scholar
  40. Sohel MSI, Mukul SA, Burkhard B (2015) Landscape’s capacities to supply ecosystem services in Bangladesh: a mapping assessment for Lawachara National Park. Ecosystem Services 12: 128–135. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tilman D (2000) Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity. Nature 405: 208–211. DOI: 10.1038/35012217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tripathi OP, Upadhaya K, Tripathi RS, Pandey HN (2010) Diversity, dominance and population structure of tree species along fragment-size gradient of a subtropical humid forest of northeast India. Environmental and Earth Sciences 2: 97–105.Google Scholar
  43. Uddin MB, Steinbauer MJ, Jentsch A, et al. (2013) Do environmental attributes, disturbances and protection regime determine the distribution of exotic plant species in Bangladesh forest ecosystems? Forest Ecology and Management 303: 72–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.03.052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vieira DLM, Scariot A (2006) Principles of natural regeneration of tropical dry forests for restoration. Restoration Ecology 14: 11–20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2006.00100.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whittaker RH (1972) Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21: 213–251. DOI: 10.2307/1218190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wulf M, Naaf T (2009) Herb layer response to broadleaf tree species with different leaf litter quality and canopy structure in temperate forests. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 517–526. DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.05713.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yu M, Sun OJ (2013) Effects of forest patch type and site on herb-layer vegetation in a temperate forest ecosystem. Forest Ecology and Management 300: 14–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco. 2012.12.039CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muha Abdullah Al Pavel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sharif A. Mukul
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mohammad Belal Uddin
    • 2
  • Kazuhiro Harada
    • 6
  • Mohammed A. S. Arfin Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Environment Science, School of Agriculture and Mineral SciencesShahjalal University of Science and TechnologySylhetBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry (TeSAF), School of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineUniversity of PadovaLegnaroItaly
  3. 3.Tropical Forestry Group, School of Agriculture and Food SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Tropical Forests and People Research CentreUniversity of the Sunshine CoastMaroochydore DCAustralia
  5. 5.Centre for Research on Land-use SustainabilityMaijdi, NoakhaliBangladesh
  6. 6.Dept. of Biosphere Resources Science, Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations