Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 13, Issue 8, pp 1503–1514 | Cite as

Empirical assessment of adaptation to climate change impacts of mountain households: development and application of an Adaptation Capability Index

  • Rajiv PandeyEmail author
  • Nandini Maithani
  • Roberta Aretano
  • Giovanni Zurlini
  • Kelli M. Archie
  • Ajay K. Gupta
  • Vishnu Prasad Pandey
Article

Abstract

The present study proposes an index to assess the potential for adaptation to climate change for households in the mountainous regions. The index provides a realistic approach to recognize social and natural factors which contribute to successful adaptation and addresses several household functions, such as social networking, livelihood strategy, adjustment strategies, resource availability and accessibility. The proposed Adaptation Capability Index (ACI) is analytically defined, mathematically formulated and field tested on mountainous households in urban and semi-urban regions of the Uttarakhand Himalaya in India. To gather data on the topic relevant to the ACI, a household scale questionnaire was developed and administered to 120 heads of households through face-to-face interviews. The results highlight higher adaptive capability of urban households and low adaptation capacity of rural households due to poor farm productivity, low accessibility and availability of resources and technological input. Future programs and policies must include and implement regulations to remedy attributive factors responsible for higher adaptation. This paper may be applicable to other mountainous regions and may provide insights for effective adaptation strategies to climate change.

Keywords

Adaptation strategy Adjustment practice Climate change Vulnerability Resilience Social networking 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Global Environment Change 16: 268–28. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger WN, Brooks N, Bentham G, et al. (2004) New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Report 7, Tyndall Centre, Norwich, UK.Google Scholar
  3. Adger WN, Vincent K (2005) Uncertainty in adaptive capacity. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 337: 399–410. DOI: 10.1016/j.crte.2004.11.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal A, Perrin N (2009) Climate adaptation, local institutions and rural livelihoods. In: Adger WN, et al. (Eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. USA.Google Scholar
  5. Ariza C, Maselli D, Kohler T (2013) Mountains: Our life, our future. Progress and perspectives on sustainable mountain development from Rio 1992 to Rio 2012 and beyond. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Bern, Switzerland. p 90.Google Scholar
  6. Baul TK, Ullah KM, Tiwari KR, et al. (2013) People’s local knowledge of climate change in the Middle-Hills of Nepal. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 12(4): 585–595.Google Scholar
  7. Below TB, Mutabaz KD, Kirschke D, et al. (2012) Can farmers’ adaptation to climate change be explained by socioeconomic household level variables? Global Environmental Change 22(1): 1–13. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.11.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boko M, Niang I, Nyong A, et al. (2007) Africa-climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML et al. (eds.), Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. pp 433–467.Google Scholar
  9. Bryan E, Deressa T, Gbetibouo G, et al. (2009) Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: options and constraints. Environmental Science & Policy 12: 413–426. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chakraborty A, Joshi PK, Ghosh A, et al. (2013) Assessing biome boundary shifts under climate change scenarios in India. Ecological Indicators 34: 536–547 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.06.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers R, Conway GR (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century IDS. IDS Discussion Paper No 296, Brighton, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Chaudhary P, Bawa SK (2011) Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas. Biology Letters 7(5): 767–770. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deressa TT, Hassan RM, Ringler C, et al. (2009) Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change 19(2): 248–255. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dev SM (2011) Climate Change, Rural Livelihoods and Agriculture (focus on Food Security) in Asia-Pacific Region. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai. Available online at: http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/WP-2011-014.pdf (Assessed on 11 January 2015)Google Scholar
  15. Eriksson M, Jianchu X, Shrestha AB, et al. (2009) The Changing Himalayas: Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Livelihoods in the Greater Himalayas. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Available online at: http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/fileadmin/wwc/Library/Publications_and_reports/Climate_ Change/PersPap_01._The_Changing_Himalayas.pdf (Accessed on 20 January 2015)Google Scholar
  16. Falcon WP, Naylor RL, Smith WL, et al. (2004) Using climate models to improve Indonesian food security. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 40(3): 355–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Füssel HM (2007) Adaptation planning for climate change: concept, assessment approaches, and key lessons. Sustainability Science 2(2): 265–275. DOI: 10.1007/s11625-007-0032-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fussel HM, Klein RJT (2006) Climate change vulnerability assessments: An evolution of conceptual thinking. Climatic Change 75: 301–329. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-006-0329-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gain AK, Giupponi C, Renaud FG (2012) Climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems in developing countries: a generalized framework and a feasibility study in Bangladesh. Water 4: 345–366. DOI: 10.3390/w4020345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gentle P, Maraseni TN (2012) Climate change, poverty and livelihoods: adaptation practices by rural mountain communities in Nepal. Environmental Science & Policy 21: 24–34. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gerlitz JY, Hunzai K, Hoermann B (2012) Mountain poverty in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas. Canadian Journal of Development Studies 33(2): 250–265. DOI: 10.1080/02255189.2012.689613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. GoU (2011a) Statistical Book: Dehradun District. Office of District Economics and Statistics, Dehradun, Uttarakhand.Google Scholar
  23. GoU (2011b) Statistical Book: Pauri Garhwal District. Office of District Economics and Statistics, Pauri-Garhwal, Uttarakhand.Google Scholar
  24. Hahn MB, Riederer AM, Foster SO (2009) The livelihood vulnerability index: a pragmatic approach to assessing risks from climate variability and change-a case study in Mozambique. Global Environment Change 19(1): 74–88. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hinkel J (2011) Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity: Towards a clarification of the science-policy interface. Global Environmental Change 21: 198–208. DOI: 10.1016/j. gloenvcha.2010.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) (2011) Framework for Community-Based Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment in Mountain Areas. ICIMOD, Kathmandu. Available online at: http://lib.icimod.org/record/8096/files/attachment_741.pdf (Accessed on 23 December, 2015)Google Scholar
  27. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  28. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, McCarthy, JJ, Canziani, OF, Leary, NA, Dokken, DJ, and White, KS, (eds.),. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  29. IPCC (2014) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. In: Field CB et al. (eds.),. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp 1–32.Google Scholar
  30. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: The fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp 74–78.Google Scholar
  31. Kohler T, Giger M, Hurni H, et al. (2010) Mountains and climate change: a global concern. Mountain Research and Development 30 (1): 53–55. DOI: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNALD-09-00086.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lemos MC, Kirchhoff CJ, Ramprasad V (2012) Narrowing the climate information usability gap. Nature Climate Change 2(11): 789–794. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Linnekamp F, Koedam A, Baud ISA (2011) Household vulnerability to climate change: Examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo. Habitat International 35(3): 447–456. DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2010.12.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maddison DJ (2007) The Perception of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper no. 4308. Available online at: http://www. ceepa.co.za/docs/CDPNo10.pdf (Accessed 23/03/2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mano R, Nhemachena C (2007) Assessment of the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zimbabwe: a Ricardian approach. Policy Research Working Paper No. 4292. World Bank, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  36. Marston RA (2008) Land, life, and environmental change in mountains. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 98(3): 507–520. DOI: 10.1080/00045600802 118491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCarthy JJ, Canziani O, Leary NA, et al. (eds) (2001) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. IPCC working group II. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  38. Mendelsohn R (2008) The impact of climate change on agriculture in developing countries. Journal of Natural Resource Policy Research 1: 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miller BW, Morisette JT (2014) Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change. Ecology and Society 19(3): 41. DOI: 10.5751/ES-06813-190341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mycoo MA (2014) Autonomous household responses and urban governance capacity building for climate change adaptation: Georgetown, Guyana. Urban Climate 9: 134–154. DOI: 10.1016/j.uclim.2014.07.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nhemachena C, Hassan R (2007) Micro-Level Analysis of Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in Southern Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00714, Environment and Production Technology Division, IFPRI, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  42. Pandey R, Jha SK (2012) Climate vulnerability index-measure of climate change vulnerability to communities: a case of rural Lower Himalaya, India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 17(6): 487–506. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-011-9338-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pandey R, Kala S, Pandey VP (2014) Assessing climate change vulnerability of water at household level. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-014-9556-5Google Scholar
  44. Rajwar GS (1993) Garhwal Himalaya: Ecology and Environment. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  45. Sharma E (2012) Climate change and its impact in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: An Introduction. In: Lamadrid A, Ilan K (eds.), Climate Change Modeling for Local Adaptation in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region. Vol 11. Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, UK. pp 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh SP, Bassignana-Khadka I, Karky BS, et al. (2011) Climate change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: The state of current knowledge. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  47. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Chang 16(3): 282–292. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Skjeflo S (2013) Measuring household vulnerability to climate change—Why markets matter. Global Environmental Change 23: 1694–1701. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.08.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tiwari KR, Sitaula BK, Nyborg IP, et al. (2008) Determinants of Farmers’ adoption of improved soil conservation technology in a Middle Mountain watershed of Central Nepal. Environmental Management 42: 210–222. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-008-9137-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tse-ring K, Sharma E, Chettri N, et al. (eds) (2010) Climate change vulnerability of mountain ecosystems in the Eastern Himalayas; Climate change impact an vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas–Synthesis report. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  51. Urothody AA, Larsen HO (2010) Measuring climate change vulnerability: a comparison of two indexes. Banko Jankari 20(1): 9–16.Google Scholar
  52. Vincent K (2004) Creating an index of social vulnerability to climate change for Africa. Working Paper 56, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and School of Environmental Sciences. University of East Anglia, Anglia, UK.Google Scholar
  53. Vincent K (2007) Uncertainty in adaptive capacity and the importance of scale. Global Environmental Change 17: 12–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Westerhoff L, Smit B (2009) The rains are disappointing us: dynamic vulnerability and adaptation to multiple stressors in the Afram Plains, Ghana. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14: 317–337. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-008-9166-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zurick D, Karan PP (1999) Himalaya: Life on the Edge of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajiv Pandey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nandini Maithani
    • 2
  • Roberta Aretano
    • 3
  • Giovanni Zurlini
    • 3
  • Kelli M. Archie
    • 4
  • Ajay K. Gupta
    • 2
  • Vishnu Prasad Pandey
    • 5
  1. 1.Biodiversity and Climate Change DivisionICFREDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Forest Research InstituteDehradunIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly
  4. 4.Climate Change Research InstituteVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  5. 5.Asian Institute of Technology and Management (AITM)LalitpurNepal

Personalised recommendations