Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 501–517 | Cite as

The impact of the cognition of landscape experience on tourist environmental conservation behaviors

  • Yu-ling Zhang
  • Jie Zhang
  • Hong-Lei ZhangEmail author
  • Shao-wen Cheng
  • Yong-rui Guo
  • Jin-hai Ma
  • Jing-rong Sun
Article

Abstract

This article explores the relationship between the tourist’s cognition of the landscape experience and the environmental conservation efforts at three distinct tourist sites in mountains of southwestern China. A total of 1500 on-site questionnaire surveys were distributed and 1142 valid questionnaires were used for statistical analysis. Results from multi-group path analysis showed that both cognition of the cultural landscape experience and cognition of the natural landscape experience had positive impacts on environmental conservation behaviors and behavior intentions of tourists. Results from comparative analysis among the three tourist sites indicated that cognition of the cultural landscape experience had a stronger power to predict senior environmental conservation behaviors and behavior intentions than cognition of the natural landscape experience, whereas cognition of the natural landscape experience had more power to predict general environmental conservation behaviors and behavior intentions than cognition of the cultural landscape experience. Furthermore, our findings benefit environmental management and sustainability at tourist sites.

Keywords

Landscape experience Tourist behaviors Environmental conservation Cognition Emotion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ballantyne R, Packer J (2011) Using tourism free choice — learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behavior: the role of post visit ‘action resources’. Environmental Education Research 17(2): 201–215. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2010.530645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballantyne R, Packer J, Falk J (2011a) Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short-and long-term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling. Tourism Management 32(6): 1243–1252. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2010.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ballantyne R, Packer J, Hughes K (2009) Tourists’ support for conservation messages and sustainable management practices in wildlife tourism experiences. Tourism Management 30(5): 658–664. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2008.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballantyne R, Packer J, Sutherland LA (2011b) Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism Management 32(4): 770–779. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2010.06.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barker NH, Roberts CM (2004) Scuba diver behavior and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs. Biological Conservation 120(4): 481–489. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.03.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai R (1999) Tibetan buddhism and folk. Ethnic Publishing House, Beijing, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Carrus G, Scopelliti M, Fornara F, et al. (2013) Place attachment, community identification, and pro-environmental engagement. In: Manzo LC, Devine-Wright P (Eds.), Place Attachment:Advances in Theory, Methods and Applications. Routledge, London and New York. pp 176–192.Google Scholar
  8. Casey JF, Brown C, Schuhmann P (2010) Are tourists willing to pay additional fees to protect corals in Mexico?. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(4): 557–573. DOI: 10.1080/096695 80903513079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen A, Peng N (2012) Green hotel knowledge and tourists’ staying behavior. Annals of Tourism Research 39(4): 2211–2219. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals. 2012. 07.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiu YTH, Lee WI, Chen TH (2014) Environmentally responsible behavior in ecotourism:Antecedents and implications. Tourism management 40: 321–329. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2013.06.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Claver-Cortés E, Molina-Azorín JF, Pereira-Moliner J, et al. (2007) Environmental strategies and their impact on hotel performance. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15(6): 663–679. DOI: 10.2167/jost640.0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cyr D, Head M, Ivanov A (2009) Perceived interactivity leading to e-loyalty: Development of a model for cognitive-affective user responses. International journal of human-computer studies 67(10): 850–869. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Rojas C, Camarero C (2008) Visitors’ experience, mood and satisfaction in a heritage context: Evidence from an interpretation center. Tourism Management 29(3): 525–537. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2007.06.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Decrop A (1999) Tourists’ decision-making and behavior processes. In: Pizam A, Mansfeld Y (Eds.), Consumer Behavior in Travel and Tourism. Haworth. New York, USA. pp 103-133.Google Scholar
  15. del Bosque IR, Martín HS (2008) Tourist satisfaction a cognitive-affective model. Annals of Tourism Research 35(2): 551–573. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2008.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dief ME, Font X (2010) Determinants of environmental management in the Red Sea hotels: Personal and organizational values and contextual variables. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 36(1): 115–137. DOI: 10.1177/1096348010388657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferguson MA, Branscombe NR (2010) Collective guilt mediates the effect of beliefs about global warming on willingness to engage in mitigation behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30(2): 135–142. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.11.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gefen D, Straub DW (2003) Managing user trust in B2C eservices. E-service Journal, 2(2): 7–24. DOI: 10.1353/esj.2003.0011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Halpenny EA (2010) Pro-environmental behaviors and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30(4): 409–421. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Han H, Hsu LTJ, Sheu C (2010) Application of the theory of planned behavior to green hotel choice: Testing the effect of environmental friendly activities. Tourism Management 31(3): 325–334. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.03.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Han H, Kim Y, Kim EK (2011) Cognitive, affective, conative, and action loyalty: Testing the impact of inertia. International Journal of Hospitality Management 30(4): 1008–1019. DOI:10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harth NS, Leach CW, Kessler T (2013) Guilt, anger, and pride about in-group environmental behavior: Different emotions predict distinct intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology 34: 18–26. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2012.12.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hassan SS (2000) Determinants of market competitiveness in an environmentally sustainable tourism industry. Journal of Travel Research 38(3): 239–245. DOI: 10.1177/00472875 0003800305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Higham J, Carr A (2002) Ecotourism visitor experiences in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Challenging the environmental values of visitors in pursuit of pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 10(4): 277–294. DOI: 10.1080/09669580208667168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holden A (2003) In need of new environmental ethics for tourism?. Annals of Tourism Researc 30(1): 94–108. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00030-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holden A, Sparrowhawk J (2002) Understanding the motivations of ecotourists: The case of trekkers in Annapurna, Nepal. International Journal of Tourism Research 4(6): 435–446. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Homburg A, Stolberg A (2006) Explaining pro-environmental behavior with a cognitive theory of stress. Journal of Environmental Psychology 26(1): 1–14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.03.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Imran S, Alam K, Beaumont N (2014) Environmental orientations and environmental behavior: Perceptions of protected area tourism stakeholders. Tourism management 40: 290–299. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2013.07.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. James PE, Martin G (1981) All possible worlds: A history of geographical ideas. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. p 177.Google Scholar
  30. Jansson J, Marell A, Nordlund A (2011) Exploring consumer adoption of a high involvement eco-innovation using valuebeliefnorm theory. Journal of Consumer Behavior 10(1): 51–60. DOI: 10.1002/cb.346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Juraskova I, O’Brien M, Mullan B, et al. (2011) HPV vaccination and the effect of information framing on intentions and behavior: An application of the theory of planned behavior and moral norm. International journal of behavioral medicine 19(4): 518–525. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-011-9182-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kaiser FG, Schultz PW, Berenguer J, et al. (2008) Extending Planned Environmentalism. European Psychologist 13(4): 288–297. DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040.13.4.288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kim AK, Airey D, Szivas E (2011) The multiple assessment of interpretation effectiveness: Promoting visitors’ environmental attitudes and behavior. Journal of Travel Research 50(3): 321–334. DOI: 10.1177/0047287510362786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kostakis I, Sardianou E (2012) Which factors affect the willingness of tourists to pay for renewable energy? Renewable Energy 38(1): 169–172. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Larsen S (2007) Aspects of a psychology of the tourist experience. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 7(1): 7–18. DOI: 10.1080/15022250701226014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. López-Mosquera N, Sánchez M (2012) Theory of planned behavior and the value-belief-norm theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park. Journal of Environmental Management 113(30): 251–262. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvma n.2012.08.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lazarus RS (1991) Emotion and adaptation. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Lee S, Park SY (2009) Do socially responsible activities help hotels and casinos achieve their financial goals? International Journal of Hospitality Management 28(1): 105–112. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.06.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee TH, Jan FH, Yang CC (2013) Conceptualizing and measuring environmentally responsible behaviors from the perspective of community-based tourists. Tourism Management 36: 454–468. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.09.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu J, Wang H, Chen R (2009) Study on the impact of experiences in ecotourism accommodations and personal involvement on tourists’ environmental behavioral intentions. Tourism Tribune 24(8): 82–88. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  41. Martínez Caro L, Martinez Garcia JA (2007) Cognitive-affective model of consumer satisfaction: An exploratory study within the framework of a sporting event. Journal of Business Research 60(2): 108–114. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.10.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nyaupane GP, Poudel S (2011) Linkages among biodiversity, livelihood, and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 38(4): 1344–1366. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oh H, Fiore AM, Jeoung M (2007) Measuring experience economy concepts: Tourism applications. Journal of Travel Research 46(2): 119–132. DOI: 10.1177/0047287507304039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oliver R L (1993) Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. Journal of Consumer Research 20(2): 418–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ong TF, Musa G (2012) Examining the influences of experience, personality and attitude on SCUBA divers’ underwater behavior: A structural equation model. Tourism management 33(6): 1521–1534. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Qi Q, Zhang J, Yang Y, et al. (2009) Environmental attitudes and behavior intention of tourists in natural heritage site—A case study of Jiuzhaigou. Tourism Tribune 11(11): 41–46. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. Ramkissoon H, Weiler B, Smith LDG (2012) Place attachment and pro-environmental behavior in national parks: The development of a conceptual framework. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(2): 257–276. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2011.602194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Raymond CM, Brown G, Robinson GM (2011) The influence of place attachment, and moral and normative concerns on the conservation of native vegetation: A test of two behavioral models. Journal of Environmental Psychology 31(4): 323–335. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scannell L, Gifford R (2010) The relations between natural and civic place attachment and pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30(3): 289–297. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schwartz SH (1970) Moral decision making and behavior. In: Macauley J, Berko-lvitz L (Eds.), Altruism and helping behavior. Academic Press, New York, USA. pp 127–141.Google Scholar
  51. Sia AP, Hu gerford HR, Tomera AN (1986) Selected predictors of responsible environmental behavior: An analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education 17(2): 31–40. DOI: 10.1080/00958964.1986.9941408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stern PC (2000) Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues 56(3): 407–424. DOI: 10.1111/0022-4537.00175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Törn A, Siikamäki P, Tolvanen A, et al. (2008) Local people, nature conservation, and tourism in northeastern Finland. Ecology and Society 13(1): 8.Google Scholar
  54. Teisl MF, O’Brien K (2003) Who cares and who acts? Outdoor recreationists exhibit different levels of environmental concern and behavior. Environment and behavior 35(4): 506–522. DOI: 10.1177/0013916503035004004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thogersen J (2009) The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 31(4): 348–362. DOI: 10.1080/01973530903317144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Udaya Sekhar N (2003) Local people’s attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of environmental Management 69(4): 339–347. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2003.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Walls AR, Okumus F, Wang Y, et al. (2011) An epistemological view of consumer experiences. International Journal of Hospitality Management 30(1): 10–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.03.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang W, Chen JS, Fan L, et al. (2012) Tourist experience and wetland parks: A case of Zhejiang, China. Annals of Tourism Research 39(4): 1763–1778. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2012.05.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang PW, Jia JB (2012) Tourists’ willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation and environment protection, Dalai lake protected area: Implications for entrance fee and sustainable management. Ocean and Coastal Management 62: 24–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wu M (2009) Structural equation model: Operation and application of the AMOS. Chongqing University Press, Chongqing, China. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  61. Zhang J (2010) Employee orientation and performance: An exploration of the mediating role of customer orientation. Journal of Business Ethics 91(1): 111–121. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-010-0570-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu-ling Zhang
    • 1
  • Jie Zhang
    • 1
  • Hong-Lei Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shao-wen Cheng
    • 2
  • Yong-rui Guo
    • 1
  • Jin-hai Ma
    • 1
  • Jing-rong Sun
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Geographic and Oceanographic SciencesNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Urban and Environmental ScienceHuazhong Normal UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations