Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 518–532 | Cite as

Relief degree of land surface and population distribution of mountainous areas in China

  • Ying Liu
  • Wei DengEmail author
  • Xue-qian Song
Article

Abstract

Evaluation on the population pressure in the mountainous areas is a necessary condition for the protection and good governance. The evaluation depends on accurate population density assessment. Traditional methods used to calculate population density often adopt the administrative region as a scale for statistical analysis. These methods did not consider the effects of the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) on the population distribution. Therefore they cannot accurately reflect the degree of population aggregation, especially in mountainous areas. To explore this issue further, we took the mountainous areas of China as the research area. China has A total area of 666 km2 can be classified as mountainous area, accounting for 69.4% of the country’s total landmass. The data used in this research included the digital elevation model (DEM) of China at a scale of 1:1,000,000, National population density raster data, the DEM and the national population density raster data. First, we determined the relief degree of land surface (RDLS). Next, we conducted a correlation analysis between the population distribution and the RDLS using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Based on the correlation analysis results and population distribution, this new method was used to revise the provincial population density of the mountainous areas. The revised results were used to determine the population pressure of different mountainous areas. Overall, the following results were obtained: (1) The RDLS was low in most mountainous areas (with a value between 0 and 3.5) and exhibited a spatial pattern that followed the physiognomy of China; (2) The relationship between the RDLS and population density were logarithmic, with an R2 value up to 0.798 (p<0.05), and the correlation decreased from east to west; (3) The difference between the revised population density (RPD) and the traditional population density (PD) was larger in the southeastern region of China than in the northwestern region; (4) In addition, compared with traditional results, the revised result indicated that the population pressure was larger. Based on these results, the following conclusions were made: (1) the revised method for estimating population density that incorporates the RDLS is reasonable and practical, (2) the potential population pressure in the southeastern mountainous areas is substantial, (3) the characteristics of the terrain in the high mountainous areas are important for the scattered distribution of the population, and (4) the population distribution of mountainous areas in China should be guided by local conditions, such as social, economic, and topographic conditions.

Keywords

Land surface Relief degree Population density Population pressure Population distribution Mountain China 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alice TD, Lincoln HD (1973) Cross-national comparison of population density. Science 181: 1016–1023. DOI: 10.1126/science.181.4104.1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen GJ, et al. (2004) Mountain Development Report 2003. The Commercial Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  3. Chen GJ (2004) The problem and challenge of mountain development in China. Science and Technology Review 6:55–58. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7857.2004.06.015 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Chen GJ (2007) Some considerations on strategy of development of mountain regions of China. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Science 22:126–131. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-3045.2007.02.005 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Chen GJ (2009) It is needed to transform strategic thought for the Chinese mountain region development. Bulletin of Chinese academy of science 24: 461–467. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-3045.2009.05.001 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Ding MT, Cheng ZL, Wang Q (2014) Coupling mechanism of rural settlements and mountain disasters in the upper reaches of Min River. Journal of Mountain Science 11(1): 66–72. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-012-2366-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Waal FBM, Aureli F, Judge PG (2000) Coping with crowding. Scientific American 282(5): 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feng ZM, Tang Y, YANG YZ, et al.(2007) The relief degree of land surface in china and its correlation with population distribution. Acta Geographica Sinica 62: 1073–1082. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0375-5444.2007.10.007 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Feng ZM, Yang T, Yang YZ et al.(2008) Relief degree of land surface and its influence on population distribution in China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 18: 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fang YP. (2009) The strategic influence and national guideline of mountain development in China. Decision-Making & Consultancy Newsletter 2: 14–18, 54. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-3404.2009.02.004 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Hu YC, Fang YD, Feng ZM, et al. (2009) The relief degree of land surface and its correlation with population distribution in urban agglomerations of China. In: International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems. Hai Kou, China. pp 97–100. DOI: 10.1109/IIS.2009.52Google Scholar
  12. Ladd HF (1992) Population growth, density and the costs of providing public services. Urban Studies 29(2): 273–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li GZ, Niu SW, Liu ZG (2007) Study on population distribution characteristics and pattern in mountainous region. In: The 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies. Istanbul, Turkey. pp 704–707. DOI: 10.1109/RAST.2007.4284084.Google Scholar
  14. Liu ZD, Tu HM (1989) Study on statistic unit relief amplitude in China. Tropical Geography 9: 31–38. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Liu BT, Tao HP, Liu SQ, et al. (2012) Population pressure assessment model of mountainous areas: a case study of Liangshan Yizu Autonomous prefecture, Sichuan Province. Progress in Geography 31: 476–483. DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.04.011 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Meybeck M, Green P, Vörösmarty C (2001) A new typology for mountains and other relief classes: an application to global continental water resources and population distribution. Mountain Research and Development 21: 34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Niu SW, Li GZ, Liu ZG (2006) Study on population distribution characteristics and pattern based on RS and GIS in mountainous region. In: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Denver, USA. pp 2130–2132.Google Scholar
  18. Tian YZ, Chen SP, Yue TX, et al. (2004) Simulation of Chinese population density based on land use. Acta Geographica Sinica 59: 283–292. DOI: 10.11821/xb200402015 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Wang Y, Liu SF (2008) DEM research on the local relief in the guide area, Qinghai, China. Geologic Bulletin of China 27:2117–2121. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-2552.2008.12.019 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Wu KY, Jin JL (2008) Attribute recognition method of regional ecological security evaluation based on combined weight on principle of relative entropy. Scientia Geographica Sinica 28: 754–758. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0690.2008.06.007 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Yu H, Deng W, Liu SQ (2013) Impact of relief amplitude on population and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 22: 686–690. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Yuan GQ, Guo HL (1998) A Study on the coordinate development of population resources and environment and economy in mountain area. Areal Research and Development 17: 64–67. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-2363.1998.04.015 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Yang XH, Ma HQ (2009) Natural environment suitability of china and its relationship with population distributions. Environmental Research and Public Health 6:3025–3039. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6123025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yang YZ, Feng ZM, Wang L (2014) Research on the suitability of population distribution at the provincial scale in China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 24(5): 889–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhou ZX, Li J, Ren ZY (2012) The relief degree of land surface and population distribution in Guanzhong-tianshui economic region using GIS. Scientia Geographica Sinic 2: 951–957. (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of ScienceChengduChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina
  3. 3.Chengdu University of Information TechnologyChengduChina

Personalised recommendations