Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 14–29 | Cite as

Expansion of small terrestrial mammals and their parasites into the Barun Valley (Makalu Mt. Region, Nepal Himalaya) linked with changes in glaciation and human activities

  • Milan DanielEmail author
Article

Abstract

The article is based on collection of small terrestrial mammals (Soriculus nigrescens, Episoriculus caudatus, Neodon sikimensis, Alticola stoliczkanus, Niviventer eha and Ochotona roylei) collected in the Barun Valley, east Nepal in the pre-monsoon period of 1973. Zoogeographic and ecological characteristics and altitudinal stratification of these species are analysed, depending both on abiotic (geomorphological and climatic) and biotic (vegetation, and human presence and activities) factors. All the captured mammals were examined for ecto- and endoparasities. Infestations of Trombiculid mites and Ixodid ticks were tightly linked to the local habitat where these ectoparasites must survive during their non-parasitic phase. Analysis of their occurrence completes the reconstruction of migration routes during the expansion of small mammals into the Barun Valley and the exacerbating influence of human activities (summer pasturing, mountaineering expeditions and trekking parties). An indicator of anthropogenic influence was the occurrence of synantropic flies. The potential medical importance of these findings is discussed. It is assumed a possible occurrence of arboviruses transmitted by ticks and also rickettsioses (transmitted by ticks and chigger mites). As far bacteriological infections, plague cannot be excluded.

Keywords

Himalaya Barun Makalu region Small mammal Parasite Ecology Medical importance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Biswas B, Khajuria H (1955) Zoological results of the “Daily Mail“ Himalayan Expedition 1954. Four new mammals from Khumbu, eastern Nepal. Proceedings of Zoological Society (Calcutta) 8. pp 25–30.Google Scholar
  2. Byers A C (1996) Historical and contemporary human disturbance in the Upper Barun valley, Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area, East Nepal. Mountain Research and Development 16: 235–247. DOI: 10.2307/3673946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carpenter C, Zomer R (1996) Forest ecology of the Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area, East Nepal. Mountain Research and Development 16: 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clifford CM, Hoogstraal H, Keirans JE (1975) The Ixodes ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) of Nepal. Journal of Medical Entomology 12: 115–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Daniel M (1974) Parasitological studies within the Czechoslovak expedition to the Himalaya 1973. Folia parasitologica (Praha), Czech Republic 21: 187–188.Google Scholar
  6. Daniel M (1979) Ixodid ticks of Barun Glacier region (the Nepal Himalaya). Folia parasitologica (Praha) Czech Republic 26: 337–341.Google Scholar
  7. Daniel M, Hanzák J (1985) Small mammals in eastern part of Nepal Himalaya. Rozpravy Československé akademie věd, Řada matematických a přírodních věd (Transactions of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Series of Mathematical and Natural Sciences) 95: 1–59.Google Scholar
  8. Daniel M, Hanzák J (1993) Birds in the Barun valley (the High Himalaya, East Nepal). Časopis Národního Musea (Praha), Řada přírodovědná (Journal of the National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic, Series of Natural Science) 161: 71–83.Google Scholar
  9. Daniel M, Kalvoda J (1978) Himálaj (Himalaya). Publ. House Academia, Prague, Czech Republic. p 199. (In Czech)Google Scholar
  10. Daniel M, Stekolnikov A A (2009) Chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Makalu region in Nepal Himalaya, with a description of three new species. Journal of Medical Entomology 46: 753–765. DOI: 10.1603/033.046.0405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Filippova N A (1977) Iksodovye kleshchi podsem. Ixodinae (Ixodid ticks of the subfamily Ixodinae). Fauna SSSR. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad (Fauna of the USSR. Publ. House Nauka, Leningrad — St. Petersburg) 4/4: 1–396. (In Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Gregor F, Daniel M (1976) To the knowledge of fauna of synanthropic flies of the Nepal Himalaya. Folia parasitologica (Praha) (Czech Republic) 23: 61–68.Google Scholar
  13. Gregori J, Petrov B (1976) Scientific results of the Yugoslav 1972 Himalaya Expedition — Mammalia. Razprave, Slovenska Akademija Znanosti in Umetnosti, Razred IV (Transactions of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Series IV) 19: 1–20.Google Scholar
  14. Hinton MAC (1926) Monograph of the voles and lemmings (Microtinae) living and extinct. British Museum (Museum Natural History), London, UK. Volume I, p. 488Google Scholar
  15. Hoogstraal H, Clifford CM, Saito Y, Keirans JE (1973) Ixodes (Partipalpiger) ovatus Neumann, subgen. nov.: Identity, hosts, ecology and distribution (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 10: 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoogstraal H, Mitchell RM (1971) Haemaphysalis (Alloceraea) aponommoides Warburton (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae), description of immature stages, host, distribution and ecology in India, Nepal, Sikkim and China. Journal of Parasitology 57: 635–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaroš J, Kalvoda J (1978) Geological structure of the Himalayas, Mt. Everest — Makalu section. Rozpravy Československé akademie věd, Řada matematických a přírodních věd (Transactions of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Series of Mathematical and Natural Sciences) 88: 1–69.Google Scholar
  18. Kalvoda J (1976) The relief of the Himalaya, and its recent modellation. Rozpravy Československé akademie věd, Řada matematických a přírodních věd (Transactions of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Series of Mathematical and Natural Sciences) 86: 1–53.Google Scholar
  19. Kalvoda J (2007) Dynamics of landform evolution in the Makalu-Barun region, Nepal Himalaya. Geografický časopis (Journal of Geography, Prague, Czech Republic) 59: 85–106.Google Scholar
  20. Kuhle M (1988) Geomorphological Findings on the Build-up of Pleistocene Glaciation in Southern Tibet, and on the Problem of Inland Ice — Results of the Shisha Pangma and Mt. Everest Expedition 1984. GeoJournal 17(4): 457–513. DOI: 10.2307/41144339Google Scholar
  21. Kuhle M (1991) Observations Supporting the Pleistocene Inland Glaciation of High Asia. GeoJournal 25(2/3): 33–233. DOI: 10.1007/BF02682191Google Scholar
  22. Kuhle M (2006a) Reconstruction of the ice age glaciation in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotce and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 1). Journal of Mountain Science 3: 91–124. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-006-0091-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuhle M (2006b) Reconstruction of the ice age glaciation in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotce and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 2). Journal of Mountain Science 3: 191–227. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-006-0191-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lattin G de (1967) Grundriss der Zoogeographie. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. (In German)Google Scholar
  25. Ramachandra Rao T, Dhanda V, Bhat H R, Kulkarni S M (1973) A survey of haematophagous Arthropods in Western Himalayas, Sikkim and hill districts of West Bengal. A general account. Indian Journal of Medical research 61: 1421–1461.Google Scholar
  26. Razzetti S (2000) Trekking and climbing in Nepal. New Holland Publisher, London, UK. pp 1–176.Google Scholar
  27. Schweinfurth U (1957) Die horizontale und vertikale Verbreitung der Vegetation im Himalaya. Bonner Geogr. Abhandlungen, Hft. (The horizontal and vertical distribution of vegetattion in Himalaya. Bonn Geogr. Transactions, Vol.) 20: 1–373. (In German)Google Scholar
  28. Simpson GG (1945) The principles of classification and a classification of Mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 85: 1–350.Google Scholar
  29. Weigel I (1969) Systematische Übersicht über die Insektenfresser und Nager Nepals nebst Bemerkungen zur Tiergeografie. (Survey of Nepal Insectivores a and Rodents and the zoogeographical notes.) Khumbu Himal, Band 3, Lieferung 2, Universitäts-Verlag Wagner, Insbruck-München. (Khumbu Himal, Vol. 3/2, University Publishing House Wagner, Innsbruck-Munich, Germany). (In German)Google Scholar
  30. Zomer R, Ustin S, Carpenter C (2001) Land cover change along tropical and subtropical riparian corridors within the Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area, East Nepal. Mountain Research and Development 21: 175–183. DOI: 10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0175:LCCATA]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zomer R, Ustin S, Ives J (2002) Using satellite remote sensing for DEM extraction in complex mountainous terrain: landscape analysis of the Makalu-Barun National Park of eastern Nepal. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23: 125–143. DOI: 10.1080/01431160010006449CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Public HealthPrague 10Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations