Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 647–658 | Cite as

Composition, structure and regeneration dynamics of Olea ferruginea Royle forests from Hindukush range of Pakistan

  • Khan NasrullahEmail author
  • Ali Fayaz
  • Ali Kishwar
  • Shaukat Shahid
Article

Abstract

The abundance of Olea ferruginea in Malakand Division has been significantly reduced across its distribution range due to anthropogenic pressure in the recent past. A number of initiatives were taken for grafting this species to obtain better seeds for oil production, without the basic information on their ecology and management. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified the composition, structure and regeneration dynamics of Olea ferruginea forests in Malakand Division, Hindukush range of Pakistan. In the present study, five communities dominated by Olea ferruginea were identified using Ward’s agglomerative cluster analysis. Total tree density ranged from 153–2602 plants/ha, and basal area from 19.55 to 2353 m2 ha−1 with Olea having a relative density of 51% to 87% and basal area of 48% to 93%, respectively. The density of juveniles of the dominant and subordinate tree species were generally low which reflect their narrow distribution in the study area. Size-class distributions of O. ferruginea disclosed a bell-shaped pattern, indicating that forests were heavily exploited by local inhabitants in previous periods and recently by armed forces owing to security risks in the study area. The age (mean max. 300±34 years) and annual increment (3.2±1.2 years/cm) indicates that the species is long lived and generally slow growing among the different broad leaved species studied so far. However, the oldest trees can be found by the exploration of large diameter trees in the area. In addition, we found a stable linear relationship between the age and diameter (r 2 = 0.779), indicating that diameter is a good predictor of age for this broad leaved species. In view of its relatively slow growth, longevity and positive ring-width characteristics O. ferruginea seems to be a suitable choice for dendroecological and dendrochronological studies in lesser Himalayan and Hindukush ranges of Pakistan. The results obtained from this study may help in understanding the composition, structure and regeneration dynamics of other subtropical broad leaved species.

Keywords

Olea ferruginea Species composition Ward’s agglomerative cluster analysis Seedling Dendroecology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbas M, Nizami SM, Saleem A, et al. (2011) Biomass expansion factors of Olea ferruginea (Royle) in sub-tropical forests of Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(9): 1586–1592. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2028Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed M, Shaukat SS, Saddiqui MF (2011) A multivariate analysis of vegetation of Cedrus deodara forests in Hindukush and Himalayan ranges of Pakistan: evaluating the structure and dynamics. Turkish Journal of Botany 35(4): 419–438. DOI: 10.3906/bot-1009-57Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed M, Sarangzai AM (1991) Dendrochronological approach to estimate age and growth rates of various species from Himalayan Region of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 23(1): 78–89.Google Scholar
  4. Ahmed M, Shaukat SS (2012) A Textbook of Vegetation Ecology. Abrar Sons Publishers, Karachi, Pakistan. pp 1–396.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed M, Khan N, Wahab M, et al. (2009) Description and structure of Olea ferruginea (Royle) forest of Dir Lower District of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal Botany 41(6): 2683–2683.Google Scholar
  6. Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, et al. (2010) Tree-ring chronologies from upper Indus Basin of Karakorum Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42: 295–207.Google Scholar
  7. Ahmed M, Hussain T, Sheikh AH, et al. (2006) Phytosociology structure of Himalayan Forest from different Climatic zones of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38(2): 361–382.Google Scholar
  8. Ali H, Qaiser M (2009) The ethnobotany of Chitral valley, Pakistan with particular references to medicinal plants. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 2009–2041.Google Scholar
  9. Arnan X, Lopez BC, Vilata JM, et al. (2012) The age of monumental Olive tree (Olea europaea) in northerneastern Spain. Dendrochronologia 30: 11–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Badshah L, Hussain F, Akhtar N (2010) Vegetation of subtropical forest of Tabai, South Waziristan, Pakistan. Frontier of Agriculture in China 4(2): 232–236. DOI: 10.1007/s11703-010-0108-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bailey RL, Dell TR (1973) Quantifying diameter distributions with Weibull function. Forest Science 19: 97–104.Google Scholar
  12. Baker PJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Oliver CO, et al. (2005) Disturbance history and historical stand dynamics of seasonal tropical forests in western Thailand. Ecological Monograph 75: 317–343. DOI: 10.1890/04-0488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianco L, Alagna F, Baldoni L, et al. (2013) Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development. PLoS ONE 8(1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brienen RJW, Zuidema PA (2006) Life time growth pattern and ages of Bolivian rain forest trees obtained by tree-ring analysis. Journal of Ecology 94: 481–493. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.01080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callaway RM, Ridenour WM (2004) Novel weapons: Invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2: 436–443. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0436:NWISAT]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Champion GH, Seth SK, Khattak GM (1965) Forest Types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan. pp 111–144.Google Scholar
  17. Cherubini P, Humbel T, Beeckman H, et al. (2013) Olive treering problematic dating. A comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece). Plos ONE 8(1): 1–5. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Curti JT, McIntosh RP (1950) The interrelation of certain analytic and synthetic Phytosociological characters. Ecology 31: 434–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dang H, Zhang Y, Zhang K, et al. (2010) Age, structure and regeneration of subalpine fir (Abies fargesii) forest across an altitudinal range in the Qinling mountain, China. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 547–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fritts HC (1976) Tree-Ring and Climate. Blackburn Press, Caldwell, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Habibullah (2010) Population structure and dynamics of Quercus baloot District Dir Pakistan. BS (Hons) Thesis, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Dir Upper Pakistan. p 68.Google Scholar
  22. Hart JL, Cark SL, Torreano SJ, et al. (2012) Composition, structure and dendroecology of an old growth Quercus forest on the tableland of the Cumberland plateau, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 266: 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heinrich, I (2004) Dendroclimatology of Toona ciliata. PhD Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. p 234.Google Scholar
  24. Hazrat A, Shah J, Khan AJ (2008) Medicinal value of family Ranunculacea of Dir district, Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(4): 1037–1044.Google Scholar
  25. Hussain SS (1984) Pakistan Manual of Plant Ecology. National Book Foundation, Islamabad. p 242.Google Scholar
  26. Ibrar M, Hussain F, Sultan A (2007) Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Ranyal Hills, District Shangla, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(2): 329–337.Google Scholar
  27. Jin XM, Zing YK, Schaepman ME, et al. (2008) Impact of elevation and aspect on the spatial distribution of vegetation in the Qilian mountain area with remote sensing data. The International Archive of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and spatial information Sciences 37(7): 1385–1390.Google Scholar
  28. Johnson JB (1997) Stand structure and vegetation dynamics of a subalpine treed fen in rocky mountain national Park, Colorado. Journal of Vegetation Science 8(3): 337–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Khan N, Shaukat SS, Ahmed M, et al. (2013) Vegetationenvironment relationships in the forests of Chitral district Hindukush range of Pakistan. Journal of Forestry Research 24(2): 205–216. DOI: 10.1007/s11676-013-0346-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Khan N (2011) Vegetation Ecology and Dendrochronology of Chitral. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan. p 380.Google Scholar
  31. Khan N (2012) A community analysis in Quercus baloot Griff, forest District Dir Upper Pakistan. African Journal of plant Science 6(1): 21–31. DOI: 10.5897/AJPS11.231 ISSN 1996-0824Google Scholar
  32. Khan N, Ahmed M, Wahab M, et al. (2010) Phytosociology, structure and physiochemical analysis of soil in Quercus baloot Griff, Forest District Chitral Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(4): 2429–2441.Google Scholar
  33. Khan N, Ahmed M, Shaukat SS, et al. (2011) Structure, diversity and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC. dominated forests of District Dir Lower, Pakistan. Frontier of Agriculture in China 5(1) 106–121. DOI: 10.1007/s11703-011-1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koriala M (2004) Vegetation composition and diversity of Piluwa micro-watershed of Tinjure-Mike region East Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Science 2(3): 29–32.Google Scholar
  35. McCune B, Grace JB (2002) Analysis of Ecological Communities. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, USA.Google Scholar
  36. Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation Ecology. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York, USA. p 547.Google Scholar
  37. Mitchell TD, Jones PD (2005) An improved method of constructing a data base of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grid. International Journal of Climatology 25: 693–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murphy PG, Lugo AG (1986) Ecology of tropical dry forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic 17: 67–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murrell C, Gerber E, Krebs C, et al. (2011) Invasive knotweed affects native plants through allelopathy. American Journal of Botany 98(1): 38–43. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nasir E, Ali SI (1972) Flora of West Pakistan. Research project of U.S.A.D. with coordination of A.R.C. Pakistan.Google Scholar
  41. Norton DA (1983) A dendroclimatic analysis of three indigenous tree species, south island New Zealand. PhD Thesis, University of Canterbury, Canterbury, Newzealand. p 439.Google Scholar
  42. Norton DA, Palmer JG, Ogden J (1987) Dendroecological studies in Newzealand. 1. An evaluation of age estimates based on increment cores. NewZealand Journal of Botany 25: 373–383. DOI: 10.1080/0028825x.1987.10413355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ogden J (1980) Dendrochronology and dendroecology: In introduction. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 3: 154–156.Google Scholar
  44. Omeja P, Obua J, Cunningham AB (2004) Regeneration, density and size class distribution of tree species used for drum making in central Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 42: 129–136. DOI: 10.1111/j/1365-2028.2004-00509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Parker AJ, Peet RK (1984) Size and age structure of conifer forest. Ecology 65: 1685–1689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Paudel S (2010) Current Status of Wild Olive (Olea cuspidata Wall.ex G. Don): in Bajura District of Nepal. Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Press. p 56.Google Scholar
  47. Qiaoying Z, Peng L, Yunchun Z, et al. (2008) Ecological characteristics of Abies georgei population at timberline on the north facing slope of Baima Snow Mountain, Southwest China. Acta Ecological Sinica 28: 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Runkle JR, Stewart GH, McClenahen JR (1997) Temporal changes in height and diameter growth for two Nothofagus species in New Zealand. Journal of Vegetation Science 8: 437–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramakrishnan PS, Vitousek PM (1989) Ecosystem level processes and the consequences of biological invasion. In: Drake JA, Mooney MA, di Castri F, et al. (eds.) Biological Invasions; A Global Perspective. Scope 37: John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. pp 281–300.Google Scholar
  50. Rebertus AJ, Veblen TT (1993) Structure and tree-fall gap dynamics of old-growth Nothofagus forests in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 641–654. DOI: 10.2307/3236129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rigg LS, Enright NJ, Jaffre T (1998) Stand structure of the emergent conifer Araucaria zaubenfelsii, in maquis and rainforest, Mont Do, New Caledonia. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 528–538. DOI: 10./1111/j.1442-9993.1998.tb00763.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Russel FL, Fowler NL (1999) Rarity of Oak saplings in Savannahs and woodlands of the eastern Edwards plateau, Taxes. The Southwestern Naturalist 44: 31–41.Google Scholar
  53. Ryniker KA, Bush JK, Auken OV (2006) Structure of Quercus gambelii communities in the Lincoln National forest New Mexico, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 233: 69–77. DOI: 10.1016/J.foreco.2006.06.00CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sheikh MI (1993) Trees of Pakistan. Published by Forest Institute Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan. p 142.Google Scholar
  55. Sher H, Ali H, Rehman SU (2012) Identification and conservation of important plants areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush and Himalayan mountain range. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44: 187–194.Google Scholar
  56. Sher H, Aldosari A, Ali M, et al. (2014) Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10(71): 2–16. DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-10-71.Google Scholar
  57. Sher H, Hussain F (2009) Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in northern part of Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(17): 4066–4076.Google Scholar
  58. Shibru S, Balcha G (2004) Composition, structure and regeneration status of woody plant species in Dindin natural forest, southeast Ethiopia: An Implication for conservation. Ethiopian Journal of Science 2(1): 31–48.Google Scholar
  59. Siddiqui FM (2011) Community structure and dynamics of conifers forests of moist temperate area of Himalayan region of Pakistan. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan. p 330.Google Scholar
  60. Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Wahab M, et al. (2009) Phytosociology and structure of Pinus roxburghii Sargent (Chir Pine) in lesser Himalayan and Hindukush range of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(5): 2357–2369.Google Scholar
  61. Smale MC (1994) Structure and dynamics of kanuka (Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) heaths on sand dunes in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 32: 441–452. DOI: 10.1080/0028825x.1994.10412931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Speer JH (2010) Fundamentals of Tree-Ring Research. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA. p. 333.Google Scholar
  63. Strokes MA, Smiley TL (1968) An introduction to tree-ring dating. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.Google Scholar
  64. Suh MH, Lee DK (1998) Stand structure and regeneration of Quercus mongolica forest in Korea. Forest Ecology and Management 106: 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Terral JF, Arnold-Simard G (1996) Beginning of Olive cultivation in eastern Spain in relation to Holocene bioclimate change. Quaternary Research 46: 176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tiwari RM (2010) Community Structure and Regeneration of Sub-alpine Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb. Forest in Langtang National Park, Central Nepal. MSc Thesis, Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Kathmandu, Nepal. p 43.Google Scholar
  67. Vellend M, Luke J, Harmon J, et al. (2007) Effects of exotic species on evolutionary diversification. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22(9): 481–488. DOI: 10.106/j.tree.2007.02.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vetaas OR (2000) The effect of environmental factors on the regeneration of Quercus semecarpifolia in central Himalaya, Nepal. Plant Ecology 146:137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wahab M (2011) Population dynamics and dendrochronological potential of pine tree species of District Dir Pakistan. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan. p 325.Google Scholar
  70. Wahab M, Ahmed M, Khan N (2008) Phytosociology and dynamics of some pine forests of Afghanistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(3): 1071–1079.Google Scholar
  71. Ward JH (1963) Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. Journal of the American Statistical Association 58: 236–244. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1963.10500845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. White BP (2007) Dendroclimatological Analysis of Oak Species in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. A Bachelor’s Honors Thesis, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. pp. 1–69.Google Scholar
  73. Xing P, Zhang QB, Baker PJ (2012) Age and radial growth pattern of four tree species in a subtropical forest of China. Trees 26: 283–290. DOI: 10.1007/s 00468-011-0590-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yousifzai S, Khan N, Wahab M (2010) Vegetation studies of the selected graveyard of Upper Swat. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology 7(3): 211–217.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khan Nasrullah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ali Fayaz
    • 1
  • Ali Kishwar
    • 2
  • Shaukat Shahid
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Ecology Department of Botany University of MalakandChakdara Dir Lower Khyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Plant Sciences, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  3. 3.Institute of Environmental StudiesUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations