Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 398–409 | Cite as

The development of a geographic information system (GIS) database for Jiuzhaigou national nature reserve and its application

  • Bao-feng Di
  • Kai-shan ZhangEmail author
  • Ya Tang
  • Ming-hua Zhang
  • Susan L. Ustin
Article
  • 354 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to develop a GIS (Geographic Information System) database for Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (Jiuzhaigou, hereafter) in China and demonstrate its application as a research tool. A cost-effective procedure was developed to compile a variety of geographical and biological data of the study area in terms of popular GIS format such as shape files. These files were further calibrated and validated using field surveys data. The developed GIS database was used to quantify the distributions of the wildlife (amphibians, mammals, and birds) using the distances of the wildlife to the centerline of the bus-tour routes. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation in space between pairs of different wildlife using the number of habitats for given space contexts. An ArcObject-based macro was developed to perform the analysis. The results showed the majority of the habitats of wildlife are located in the proximity of the tour-bus routes with an average distance ranging from 564 to 894 m depending on types of wildlife. This indicates a possibility of the disturbance to the wildlife by human activities. The correlation coefficient of the wildlife ranged from 0.36 to 0.64 depending on pairs of wildlife, indicating some correlations in space. However, due to the limited sample size, the statistical significances need to be further investigated. This paper has successfully demonstrated the use of the GIS-based database as a research tool for environmental study.

Keywords

Geographic Information System (GIS) Database Remote sensing Wildlife Correlation Coefficient Jiuzhaigou 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ager AA, Vaillant NM, Finney MA (2011) Integrating fire behavior models and geospatial analysis for wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning. Journal of Combustion. pp 19. Doi: 10.1155/2011/572452.Google Scholar
  2. Blaschke T, Lang S, Lorup E, et al. (2000) Object-oriented image processing in an integrated GIS/remote sensing environment and perspectives for environmental applications, In: Cremers, A and Greve K. (eds.), Umweltinformation für Planung, Politik und Öffentlichkeit/Environmental Information for Planning, Politics and the Public. Vol 2. Marburg, Germany Metropolis Verlag. pp 555–570.Google Scholar
  3. Casella G, Berger RL (2001) Statistical Inference, 2nd Edition. Duxbury Press, Pacific Grove, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Chen P, Tang Y, Qiao X, et al. (2011) Environmental Change Revealed by Lake Sedimentation in Jiuzhaigou National Reserve, Sichuan, China. Journal of Mountain Science 29:534–542. (In Chinese). Doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-2786.2011.05.004.Google Scholar
  5. Cui P, Chen XQ, Liu SQ, et al. (2007) Techniques of debris flow prevention in National Parks. Earth Science Frontiers 14:172–180. (In Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cui P, Liu SQ, Tang BX, et al. (2005) Debris Flow Study and Prevention in National Park. Science Press, Beijing, China. pp 90–97. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Dufaux F, Sullivan GJ, Ebrahimi T (2009) The JPEG XR Image Coding Standard. IEEE Signal Process Mag. pp 195–204. (http://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/140753/files/2009_IEEE_SPM_dufaux_et_al.pdf, accessed on 2013-05-09)Google Scholar
  8. Edmonds E (2011) Next Generation will make you say, “WOW!” Trimble’s GeoExplorer 6000 Series. (http://www.geojobe.com/blog/tag/geoexplorer-2008/, accessed on 2011-10-19). p 1.Google Scholar
  9. ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) (2001) Using ArcGIS Spatial Analysis. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  10. ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) (2011) Exploring the ArcObjectives. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Feng G, Ren PY, Ge P, et al. (2010) A Study of the Navigation Management Mode for Spatiotemporal Separation of Tourists in Jiuzhaigou National Park during Rush Hours: Based on Management Entropy Theory and RFID Technology. Tourism Science 24: 7–17. (In Chinese). Doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-575X.2010.02.002.Google Scholar
  12. Fisher RA (1915) Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples of an indefinitely large population. Biometrika (Biometrika Trust) 10: 507–521.Google Scholar
  13. Furby SL, Campbell NA (2001) Calibrating images from different dates to ‘like-value’ digital counts. Remote Sensing of the Environment 77: 186–196. Doi: 10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00205-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao LN, Tang Y, Bossard C, et al. (2011) Diurnal variation in relative photosynthetic performance of marestail (Hippuris vulgaris Linn.) across a water temperature gradient using PAM fluorometry in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Mountain Science 6: 794–807. Doi: 10.1007/s11629-011-2215-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaulke LS, Xiao WY, Scanlon A, et al. (2010) Evaluation Criteria for implementation of a sustainable sanitation and wastewater treatment system at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China. Environmental Management 45: 93–104. Doi: 10.1007/s00267-009-9398-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Henck A, Taylor J, Lu H, et al. (2010) Anthropogenic hillslope terraces and swidden agriculture in Jiuzhaigou National Park, northern Sichuan, China. Quaternary Research 73: 201–201. Doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2009.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Homer C, Huang CQ, Yang LM, et al. (2004) Development of a 2001 National Land-Cover Database for the United States. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 7: 829–840.Google Scholar
  18. Kleinod K, Wissen M, Bock M (2005) Detecting vegetation changes in a wetland area in Northern Germany using earth observation and geodata. Journal for Nature Conservation 13: 115–125. Doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2005.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuss RF, Hall CN (1991) Ground flora trampling studies: Five years after closure. Environmental Management 15: 715–727. Doi: 10.1007/BF02589629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuss RF, Morgan JM (1980) Estimating the physical carrying capacity of recreational areas: A rationale for application of the universal soil loss equation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 35(2): 87–89.Google Scholar
  21. Leung YF, Marion JL (1999) Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Environmental Conservation 26: 270–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li SG, Hu XX, Tang Y, et al. (2011) Biogenic Silica Distribution in the Sediments from Arrow Bamboo Lake in Jiuzhaigou World Nature Heritage Reserve, China: Environmental Implication. Journal of Mountain Science 29: 395–401. (In Chinese). Doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-2786.2011.04.002.Google Scholar
  23. Li WJ, Ge XD, Liu CY (2005) Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou biosphere reserve, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 108: 279–293. Doi: 10.1007/s10661-005-4327-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li WJ, Zhang Q, Liu CY, et al. (2006) Tourism’s Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China. Environmental Management 38: 572–579. Doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0299-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu SQ, Tang XC, Tang BX, et al. (1996) The World Natural Heritage Ecological Environment and Protection in Jiuzhaigou. Chengdu University of Science and Technology Press, Chengdu, China. (In Chinese). pp 35–45.Google Scholar
  26. Liu SY, Zhang XP, Zeng ZY (2007) Biodiversity of the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu, China. (In Chinese). pp 32–40.Google Scholar
  27. Markus P, Ralf L, Wolfram M (2005) Fusion of NOAA-AVHRR imagery and geographical information system techniques to derive subscale land cover information for the upper Danube watershed. Hydrological Processes 19: 2407–2418. Doi: 10.1002/hyp.5892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyer P, Itten KI, Kellenberger T, et al. (1993) Radiometric corrections of topographically induced effects on Landsat TM data in an alpine environment. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 48: 17–28. Doi: 10.1016/0924-2716(93)90028-L.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nepal SK (2003) Trail impacts in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) national park: A logistic analysis. Environmental Management 32: 312–321. Doi: 10.1007/s00267-003-0049-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) (1975) Industrial Noise Control Manual, HEW publication 5: 75–183.Google Scholar
  31. Radiarta N, Saitoh SI, Miyazono A (2008) GIS-based multicriteria evaluation models for identifying suitable sites for Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) aquaculture in Funka Bay, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Aquaculture 284: 127–135. Doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Richards JA, Jia X (2006) Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  33. Schroeder TA, Cohen WB, Song C, et al. (2006) Radiometric correction of multi-temporal Landsat data for characterization of early successional forest patterns in western Oregon. Remote Sensing of the Environment 103:16–26. Doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2006.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Souleyrette R, Hallmark S, Pattnaik S, et al. (2003) Grade and Cross Slope Estimation from LIDAR Based Surface Model (MTC-2001-02) Prepared by Midwest Transportation Consortium and Iowa State University for U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration; U.S. Department of Transportation: Washington, DC, USA. pp 1–29.Google Scholar
  35. Sun D, Liddle MJ (1993) A survey of trampling effects on vegetation and soil in eight tropical and subtropical sites. Environmental Management 17: 497–510. Doi: 10.1007/BF 02394665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Winkler D (1998) The forests of the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, a case study from Jiuzhaigou (Zitsa Degu; NNW Sichuan). Plant Research and Development Vol. 47/48: 184–212. Doi: 10.1115/1.2834120.Google Scholar
  37. Wolock DM, Price CV (1994) Effects of digital elevation model map scale and data resolution on a topography-based watershed model. Water Resources Research 30: 3041–3052. Doi: 10.1029/94WR01971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu S, Li J, Huang GH (2008) A study on DEM-derived primary topographic attributes for hydrologic applications: Sensitivity to elevation data resolution. Applied Geography 28: 210–223. Doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2008.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu YH, Tang Y, Zhang CS, et al. (2010) Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Road Dusts and Soils of the Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area in Sichuan, China. Journal of Mountain Science 28: 288–293. (In Chinese). Doi: 10.3969/ j.issn.1008-2786.2010.03.005.Google Scholar
  40. Zhang DQ, Xu MQ (1993) An Approach to Mass Movements in the Jiuzhaigou Catchment. Natural Hazards 8:141–151. Doi: 10.1007/BF00605438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang K, Frey HC (2006) Road Grade Estimation for On-Road Vehicle Emission Modeling using LIDAR data. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 56: 777–788. Doi: 10.1080/10473289.2006.10464500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bao-feng Di
    • 1
  • Kai-shan Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ya Tang
    • 1
  • Ming-hua Zhang
    • 2
  • Susan L. Ustin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Department of Land, Air, and Water ResourcesUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations