Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 885–897 | Cite as

The effects of natural capital protection on pastoralist’s livelihood and management implication in the source region of the Yellow River, China

  • Yi-ping Fang
Article

Abstract

The interaction among different livelihood capitals is a key to generate a deeper understanding of the livelihood sustainability. In this paper, we use net income per capita (economic capital), meat and milk production per capita (physical capital), and areas of fenced pasture, livestock shelter, grassland rodent control and planted grassland (physical capital) as proxy indicators of livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and livelihood protection respectively. By developing a correlation model between pastoralists’ livelihood protection and improvement, we found that (1) there is a statistically significant correlation between the pastoralists’ livelihood protection and promotion; (2) based on the maximum effect of pastoralists’ livelihood promotion and provision, there is a benchmark in the effect of the intervention intensity of livelihood capital (grassland resource protection) on livelihood improvement; (3) on basis of two indicators, i.e. net income per capita and meat production per capita, the reasonable scales of fenced pasture, livestock shelter and planted grassland are less than 843, 860 and 46 thousand hectares (hm2) per year respectively. With the marginal effect of livelihood protection, moderately decreased areas of fenced pasture and planted grassland, and increased area of livestock shelter is a critical to ensure pastoralist’s livelihood sustainability.

Keywords

Regional sustainability Natural capital protection Pastoralist’s livelihood Source Region of the Yellow River 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adhikari KP, Goldey P (2009) Social capital and its “downside”: the impact on sustainability of induced community-based organizations in Nepal. World Development 38:184–194. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.10.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansoms A, McKay A (2010) A quantitative analysis of poverty and livelihood profiles: the case of rural Rwanda. Food Policy 35:584–598. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.06.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bebbington A (1999) Capitals and capabilities: a framework for analyzing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. World Development27:2021–2044.DOI:10.1016/S0305-750X (99)00104 -7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bebbington A (1997) Social capital and rural intensification: local organizations and islands of sustainability in the rural Andes. Geographical Journal 163:189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett N, Lemelin RH, Koster R, Budke I (2012) A capital assets framework for appraising and building capacity for tourism development in aboriginal protected area gateway communities. Tourism Management 33:752–766. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.08.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blignaut J, Moolman C (2006) Quantifying the potential of restored natural capital to alleviate poverty and help conserve nature: a case study from South Africa. Journal of Natural Conservation 14:237–248. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnc.2006.04.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chamber R, Conway GR (1991) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century, IDS discussion paper 296. Institute of Development Studies. Available from http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/775/Dp296.pdf?sequence=1[Accessed 18 November 2011].Google Scholar
  8. Chen YY, Wang YG, Zhou XY (2008) Research on the status of the desertification and it is driving force in the source region of the Yellow River. Journal of Qinghai University (Nat. Sci.) 26:71–76, 80. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Cleaver F (2005) The inequality of social capital and the reproduction of chronic poverty. World Development 33:893–906. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.09.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collados C, Duane TP (1999) Natural capital and quality of life: a model for evaluating the sustainability of alternative regional development paths. Ecological Economics 30:441–460. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00020-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coulombe S, Tremblay JF (2006) Human capital and Canadian provincial standards of living. Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 89-552-MIE, no. 14. Available online: http://aix1.uottawa.ca/~scoulomb/pages/89-552-MIE2006014.pdf (Accessed on 6 July 2011).Google Scholar
  12. Coulombe S, Tremblay JF (2009) Skills accumulation and living standards in Portugal. Available online: http://aix1.uottawa.ca/~scoulomb/pages/Coulombe-Tremblay-Portugal.pdf (Accessed on 6 July 2011)Google Scholar
  13. Deng XM, Wang YH, Li BJ, An TY (2010) Poverty issues in a national wildlife reserve in China. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 17:529–541. DOI: 10.1080/13504509.2010.517633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Sherbinin A, VanWey LK, McSweeney K, et al. (2008) Rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Global Environmental Change 18:147–155. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dong QM, Zhao XQ, Ma YS (2007) Situations and strategy of sustained development on alpine grassland-livestock industry in headwater region of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. Research of Agricultural Modernization 28:438–442. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Erenstein O, Hellin J, Chandna P (2010) Poverty mapping based on livelihood assets: a meso-level application in the Indo-Ganetic Plains, India. Applied Geography 30:112–125. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2009.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fang YP (2013) Managing the three-rivers headwater region, China: from ecological engineering to social engineering. AMBIO 42: 566–576. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-012-0366-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fang YP, Zeng Y, Li SM (2005) Management philosophy and practices of habitats conservation for Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. Wuhan University Journal of Natural Science 10:730–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fang YP, Qin DH, Ding YJ (2010) Impact of grassland and ecosystem manual intervention on economic welfare-a case of the source region of the Yellow river. Resource and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 19:1099–1105. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Fang YP, Qin DH, Ding YJ (2011) Frozen soil change and adaptation of animal husbandry: a case of the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. Environmental Science & Policy14:555–568. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2011.03.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foggin JM (2008) Depopulating the Tibetan grasslands: national policies and perspectives for the future of Tibetan herders in Qinghai Povince, China. Mountain Research and Development 28: 26–31. DOI: 10.1659/mrd.0972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frankenberger TD, Drinkwater M, Maxwell D (2000) Operationalizing household livelihood security: a holistic approach for addressing poverty and vulnerability. CARE, USA, PHLS Unit, 151 Ellis Street, Atlanta Georgia 30303-2440.Available from http://pqdl.care.org/Practice/HLS%20-%20Operationalizing%20HLS%20-%20A%20Holistic%20 Approach.pdf [Accessed 11 September 2011].Google Scholar
  23. Gilman J (2000) Sustainable livelihoods. International Social Science Journal 17:77–86.Google Scholar
  24. Himley M (2009) Nature conservation, rural livelihoods, and territorial control in Andean Ecuador. Geoforum 40:832–842. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.06.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Israr M, Khan H (2010) Availability and success to capitals of rural household in northern Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 26:443–450.Google Scholar
  26. Jafry T (2000) Women, human capital and livelihoods: an ergonomics perspective. Natural Resource Perspective 54:1–4.Google Scholar
  27. Kang Y, Li ZC, Tian H, et al. (2011) Trend of vegetation evaluation and its response to climate change over the source region of the Yellow River. Climatic and Environmental Research 16:505–512. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Krantz L (2001) The sustainable livelihood approach to poverty reduction-An introduction. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency42–49.Google Scholar
  29. Kristjanson P, Radeny M, Baltenweck I, et al. (2005) Livelihood mapping and poverty correlates at a meso-level in Kenya. Food Policy30:568–583.DOI:10.1016/j.foodpol.2005.10.002Google Scholar
  30. Liu JW (2010) Herdsmen increase efficiency is to maintain an important guarantee for the safety of grassland ecology. China Animal Husbandry Bulletin, 12: 13–15. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Mincer J (1958) Investment in human capital and personal income distribution. Journal of Political Economy 66:281–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitra A (2008) Social capital, livelihood and upward mobility. Habitat International 32:261–269. DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2007.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mukul SA, Uddin MB, Manzoor Rashid AZM, Fox J (2010) Integrating livelihoods and conservation in protected areas: understanding the role and stakeholder views on prospects for non-timber forest products, a Bangladesh case study. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 17:180–188. DOI: 10.1080/13504500903549676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reynolds TW, Farley J, Huber C (2010) Investing in human and natural capital: an alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia. Ecological Economics 69:2140–2150. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sellamuttu SS, de Silva S, Nguyen-Khoa S (2011) Exploring relationships between conservation and poverty reduction in wetland ecosystems: lessons from 10 integrated wetland conservation and poverty reduction initiatives. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 18:328–340. DOI: 10.1080/13504509.2011.560034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sen A (1997) Editorial: Human capital and human capacity. World Development 25:1959–1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shi SJ (1999) Major problems and strategies of “Four-Way-Scheme” program for hazards prevention of animal husbandry in Qinghai Province. Chinese Qinghai Journal of Animal and Veterinary sciences 29:37–38. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. Stucker D (2006) Linking Natural Capital, Rural Livelihoods, and Conflict: Toward Governance for Environmental Security and Peace in Tajikistan. Submitted the 25th of October 2006 in partial fulfillment of the requirements of a Master’s Degree of Arts in Environmental Security and Peace at the University for Peace, headquartered in Ciudad Colón, Costa Rica. Available from http://www.mtnforum.org/sites/default/files/pub/748.pdf [Accessed 19 October 2011].Google Scholar
  39. Thuy NN, Dwivedi P, Rossi F, et al. (2011) Role of social capital in determining conservation attitude: a case study from Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 18:143–153. DOI: 10.1080 /13504509.2011.560455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Titeca K, Vervisch T (2008) The dynamics of social capital and community associations in Uganda: linking capital and its consequences. World Development36:2205–2222. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.10.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang GX, Li N, Hu HC (2009) Hydrologic effect of ecosystem responses to climatic change in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. Advances in Climate Change Research 5:202–208. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Wang H, Ren JZ, Yuan HB (2006) Study on the desertification mechanism of natural grassland in the source regions of the Yellow River. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 15:19–15. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Wang ZM, Song KS, Hu LJ (2010) China’s largest scale ecological migration in the Three-River Headwater Region. AMBIO 39:443–446. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-010-0054-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Woolcock M (1998) Social capital and economic development: toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society 27:151–208. DOI: 10.1023/A:1006884930135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zeng YN, Feng ZD (2007) Spatial and temporal changes of desertification in the headwater area of the Yellow river using remote sensing. Acta Geographica Sinica 62:529–536. (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Mountain Hazards & EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina

Personalised recommendations