Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 953–961 | Cite as

Characteristics of clustering debris flows in Wenchuan earthquake zone

  • Chao Ma
  • Kai-heng HuEmail author
  • Qiang Zou
  • Mi Tian
Article

Abstract

Clustering debris-flow events, namely many debris flows simultaneously triggered by a regional rainstorm in a large-scale mountainous area, occurred in four regions of Wenchuan earthquake stricken areas in 2008 and 2010. The characteristics of the clustering debris flows are examined with regard to triggering rainfall, formation process, and relationship with the earthquake by field survey and remote sensing interpretation. It is found that the clustering events occurred nearly at the same time with the local peak rainstorms, and the rainfall intensity-duration bottom limit line for clustering debris flows is higher than the worldwide line. It means that more rainfall is needed for the occurrence of the clustering debris flows. Four kinds of major formation processes for these debris flows are summarized: tributary-dominated, mainstream-dominated, transformation from slope failures, and mobilization or liquefaction of landslide. The four regions has a spatial correlation with the strong-quake-influenced zone with the peak ground acceleration = 0.2 g and the seismic intensity > X.

Keywords

Clustering debris flows Wenchuan earthquake Rainfall threshold Formation process 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Caine N (1980) The rainfall intensity: duration control of shallow landslides and debris flows. Geografiska Annaler. Series A. Physical Geography 62: 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cannon SH, Ellen SD (1985) Rainfall conditions for abundant debris avalanches, San Francisco Bay region, California. California Geology 38(12): 267–272.Google Scholar
  3. Chen CY, Chen TC, Yu FC, et al. (2005) Analysis of time-varying rainfall infiltration induced landslide. Environment Geology 48: 466–479. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-005-1289-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen SC, Huang BT (2010) No-Structural Mitigation Programs for Sediment-Related Disasters after the Chichi Earthquake in Taiwan. Journal of Mountain Science 7: 291–300. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-010-2021-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen NS, Hu GS, Deng MF, Zhou W, Yang CL, Han D, Deng JH (2011) Impact of earthquake on debris flow-a case study on the Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami 5(5): 493–508. DOI: 10.1142/S1793431111001212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Egashira S, Honda N, Itoh T (2001) Experimental study on the entrainment of bed material into debris flow. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part C: Solar, Terrestrial & Planetary 26(9): 645–650. DOI: 10.1016/S1464-1917(01)00062-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emmanuel JG, Simon MM (2006) The mobilization of debris flows from shallow landslides. Geomorphology 2: 207–218. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.08.013Google Scholar
  8. Guadagno FM (2000) The landslides of 5th May 1998 in Capmpania, Southern Italy: Natural disasters or also maninduced phenomena. Journal of Nepal geological society 22: 463–470.Google Scholar
  9. García-Martínez R, López JL (2005) Debris Flows of December 1999 in Venezuela. Debris-Flow Hazards and Related Phenomena. Springer Praxis Books, Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK. pp 519–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Godt JW, Coe JA (2007) Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado. Geomorphology 84: 80–97. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.07.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu KH, You Y, Zhuang JQ (2010) Characteristics and countermeasures of debris flows in Beichuan’s meizoseismal area. Sciatica Geographical silica 4: 566–570. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Hsiao DH, Hsieh CS, Chang JJ (2011) Disaster Investigation and Failure Analysis of Debris Flow from Morakot Typhoon at Liugui Town, Kaohsiung, Taiwan on August 8, 2009. Proceedings of the twenty-first International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Maui, Hawaii, USA, June 19–24, 2011. pp 782–788.Google Scholar
  13. Iverson RM, Reid ME, LaHusen RG (1997) Debris-flow mobilization from landslides. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 25: 85–138. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.earth.25.1.85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson AM, Rodine JR (1984) Debris flow. In: Brunsden D, Prior DB, editors. Slope Instability. Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp. 257–361.Google Scholar
  15. Jan CD, Chen CL (2005) Debris flows caused by Typhoon Herb in Taiwan. Debris-Flow Hazards and Related Phenomena. Springer Praxis Books, Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK. pp 539–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lin ML, Jeng FS (2000) Characteristics of hazards induced by extremely heavy rainfall in Central Taiwan — Typhoon Herb. Engineering Geology 58(2): 191–207. DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(00)00058-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lin CW, Shieh CL, Yuan BD, et al. (2003) Impact of Chi-Chi earthquake on the occurrence of landslides and debris flows: example from the Chenyulan River watershed, Nantou, Taiwan. Engineering Geology 71: 49–61. DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(03)00125-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu C, Huang H, Dong J (2008) Impacts of September 21, 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake on the characteristics of gully-type debris flows in central Taiwan. Nat Hazards 4:349–368. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-008-9223-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma Y, Yu B, Wu YF, et al. (2011) Research on the Disaster of Debris Flow of Bayi Gully, Longchi, Dujiangyan, Sichuan on August 13, 2010. Journal of Sichuan University (engineering science edition) 43(S1): 92–97. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Sassa K (1985) The mechanisms of debris flow. In: Proceedings of XI International Conference on soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. San Francisco. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. pp 1173–1176.Google Scholar
  21. Shieh CL, Chen YS, Tsai YJ, et al. (2009) Variability in rainfall threshold for debris flow after the Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan, China. International Journal of Sediment Research 24(2): 177–188. DOI: 10.1016/S1001-6279(09)60025-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Su PC, Wei FQ, Feng HZ, et al. (2011) Causes and Effects of Group-occurring Debris Flow Disasters in Qingping Town, Mianyuan River Upstream, Sichuan. Journal of Mountain science 29(3): 337–347. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-2786.2011.03.011Google Scholar
  23. Tang C, Zhu J, Li WL (2009) Rainfall-triggered debris flows following the Wenchuan earthquake. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 68: 187–194. DOI: 10.1007/s10064-009-0201-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tang C, van Asch TWJ, Chang M, et al. (2011a) Catastrophic debris flows on 13 August 2010 in the Qingping area, southwestern China: The combined effects of a strong earthquake and subsequent rainstorms. Geomorphology 15: 559–576 DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.12.021Google Scholar
  25. Tang C, Zhu J, Ding J, et al. (2011b) Catastrophic debris flows triggered by a 14 August 2010 rainfall at the epicenter of the Wenchuan earth-quake. Landslide 8: 485–497. DOI: 10.1007/s10346-011-0269-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tsou CY, Feng ZY, Chigira M (2011) Catastrophic landslide induced by Typhoon Morakot, Shiaolin, Taiwan. Geomorphology 127: 166–178. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.12.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang GH, Sassa K, Fukuoka H (2003) Downslope volume enlargement of a debris slide-debris flow in the 1999 Hiroshima, Japan, rainstorm. Engineering Geology 69: 309–330. DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(02)00289-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang XY, Nie GZ, Wang DW (2010) Research on relationship between landslides and peak ground acceleration induced by Wenchuan earthquake. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering 29(1): 82–90. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Yu B, Zhang JN, Wu YF (2010) The Group debris flow hazards after the Wenchuan Earthquake in Longchi, Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province. Journal of Mountain Science 29(6): 738–746. (In Chinese) DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-2786.2011.06.014Google Scholar
  30. Zanchetta G, Sulpizio R, Pareschi MT, et al. (2004) Characteristics of May 5–6, 1998 volcaniclastic debris flows in the Sarno area (Campania, southern Italy): relationships to structural damage and hazard zonation. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 133: 377–393. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00409-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chao Ma
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kai-heng Hu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Qiang Zou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mi Tian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface ProcessesChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  3. 3.Graduate school of Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations