Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 19–30 | Cite as

Large scale mass movements triggered by the Kashmir earthquake 2005, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Basharat
  • Joachim Rohn
  • Mirza Shahid Baig
  • Muhammad Rustam Khan
  • Markus Schleier
Article

Abstract

The SPOT image analysis in Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir, northwest Himalayas, Pakistan reveals that the Kashmir earthquake 2005 triggered a number of coseismic mass movements along the hanging wall block of the Muzaffarabad Fault. The Neelidandi and Langarpura rock falls have been identified as two major reactivated mass movements with an estimated volume of 3.1 × 106 m3 and 5.76 × 106 m3, respectively. The Neelidandi and Langarpura mass movements were initiated during earthquake in the direction of northwest-southeast extension and northeast-southwest directed thrusting, respectively. The Neelidandi rock fall occurred in sheared cherty dolomites and limestones of the Cambrian Muzaffarabad Formation, whereas the Langarpura rock fall occurred in alternating clays, shales, claystones, siltstones and sandstones of the Miocene Murree Formation. These rock units along the fault are highly fractured and jointed. The geotechnical maps and geological longitudinal profiles show the relationship between the geometrical characteristics and mechanism of these mass movements. Their characteristics were analyzed according to the role of topographic, seismic, geological and tectonic factors. The steep topography, sheared rocks, lithology, coseismic uplift and strong ground shaking of the hanging wall block along Muzaffarabad Fault facilitated the gravity collapse of these mass movements.

Keywords

Coseismic mass movements kHimalayas kMuzaffarabad Fault kGeological and tectonic factors kEarthquake kRock fall 

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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Basharat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joachim Rohn
    • 1
  • Mirza Shahid Baig
    • 2
  • Muhammad Rustam Khan
    • 2
  • Markus Schleier
    • 1
  1. 1.GeoZentrum NordbayernFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of GeologyUniversity of Azad Jammu and KashmirMuzaffarabadPakistan

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