Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 51–65 | Cite as

Assessment of secondary mountain hazards along a section of the Dujiangyan-Wenchuan highway

  • Yong-shun Han
  • Shao-kun Dong
  • Zheng-chao ChenEmail author
  • Kai-heng Hu
  • Feng-huan Su
  • Peng Huang


Conducting a hazard assessment for secondary mountain hazards is the technical basis for reconstructing destroyed highways and for disaster prevention. It is necessary to consider the role and influence of structural engineering measures as an important assessment factor. In this study, based on six substantial field investigations conducted between July 2008 and July 2012, a 2 km wide zone along both sides of the Dujiangyan-Wenchuan (Du-Wen) Highway was selected as the study area. Microgeomorphic units and small watersheds in the study area were extracted with GIS software and used as basic assessment units. Through field investigations, remote sensing surveys and experimental analysis, a structural engineering effectiveness assessment was conducted using the technique of principal component analysis. The results showed the following: 1) A total of 491 collapses, 12 landslides, 32 slope debris flows and 17 gully debris flows were scatted across the study area. The total overall areal density of all mountain hazards was 25.7%. The distribution of secondary hazards was influenced mainly by seismic intensity, active fault zones, lithology, slope and altitude. More than 70% of secondary hazards occurred in zones with a seismic intensity of XI, a distance to the fault zone of between 0 and 25 km, a slope between 25° and 50°, and an altitude of between 1,000 m and 1,800 m. 2) Different structural engineering measures play different roles and effects in controlling different types and scales of secondary mountain hazards. 3) With a secondary mountain hazard area of 128.1 km2 and an areal density of 34.9%, medium, high and very high hazard zones accounted for 74% of the study area and were located on the high, steep slopes along both sides of the highway. The low hazard zone was located mainly in the valley floor, on gentle slope platforms and at locations 1.5 km away from the highway ? the hazard area was 45 km2 and the areal density was 3.3%. 4) The methodology for hazard assessment of secondary mountain hazards, which is based on five factors, solves such key technical problems as the selection of assessment units, multi-source data fusion, and the weight calculation for each assessment index. This study provides a new and more effective method for assessing secondary mountain hazards along highways, and the proposed models fit well with validation data and field observations. The findings were applied to reconstruction and disaster mitigation in the case of the Du-Wen Highway and proved to be feasible.


Secondary hazards Landslide Debris flow Hazard assessment Dujiangyan-Wenchuan Highway 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bai SH, Lv GN, Wang J, et al. (2011) GIS-based rare events logistic regression for landslide-susceptibility mapping of Lianyungang, China. Environmental Earth Sciences 62:139–149. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-010-0509-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chai ZX (1999) My concept of mountain hazards, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Mountain Science 17(1):91–94. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Chen HK, Tang HM. (2005) Research on control techniques to unstable dangerous rock mass in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Beijing, China. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control 02:105–110. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Chen NS, Cui P, Yao LK, et al. (2009) Engineering modes for prevention and control of debris flows along mountainous roads, Sichuan Province, China. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control 20(1):1–5. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Chen XC, Chen H (2009) Earthquake-induced mountain hazards and its counter measures: case study on earthquake-induced mountain hazards of Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Porvince, China. Journal of Southwest University of Science and Technology 24(1): 42–48. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Chen XQ, Cui P, Zhao WY (2009) Optimal timing for the control of debris flow in Wenchuan Earthquake area, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition) 41(3): 125–130. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Cui P, Chen XQ, Zhang JQ, et al. (2013) Active characteristics and development trend of 4.20 Lushan 7.0-earthquake, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Mountain Science 31(3):257–265. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Cui P, Xiang L, Zou Q (2013) Risk assessment of highways affected by debris flows in Wenchuan Earthquake area. Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Mountain Science 10(2): 173–189. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-013-2575-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gendy AS (1999) Effective modeling of beams with shears deformations on elastic foundation. Structural Engineering and Mechanics 8(6):607–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Han H, Sun BW, Zhu GX, et al. (2005) Study on synthetic estimation method of road risk assessment of geological hazard, Beijing, China. Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development 22(9):9–11. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Han YS, Cui P, Zhu YY, et al. (2009) Remote sensing monitoring and assessment of traffical damage by Wenchuan Earthquake: a case study in Du-Wen highway, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition) 41(3): 273–283. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Han YS, Liu HJ, Cui P, et al. (2009) Hazard assessment on secondary mountain-hazards triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 3(1): 031645–031645. DOI: 10.1117/1.3154419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang J, Ju NP (2012) Evaluation approach of counter measure efficiency for landslides, Beijing, China. Journal of Engineering Geology 20(2): 189–194. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Huang RQ, Li WL (2009) Development and distribution of geohazards triggered by the 5.12 Wenchuan Earthquake in China. Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences 52(4): 810–819. DOI: 10.1007/s11431-009-0117-1.Google Scholar
  15. Kamp U, Growley BJ, Khattak GA, et al. (2008) GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region. Geomorphology 101(4): 631–642. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kamp U, Lewis A, Owen, et al. (2010) Back analysis of landslide susceptibility zonation mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake: an assessment of the reliability of susceptibility zoning maps. Natural Hazards 54(1):1–25. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-009-9451-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li LR, Jia JL, Guo XZ, et al. (2000) The Control works of Lianziya dangerous rock mass and Huanglashi landslide in the Three Gorges of Yangtze river, Beijing, China. Journal of Engineering Geology 8(supp):443–448. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Liu CZ (2004) Study on the early warning methods of landslidedebris flows, Beijing, China. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology 3(1): 1–6. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Liu DJ (2001) Design and observation of deformation monitoring of Yangjiacao slide for slide prevention, Hubei Province, China. Yangtze River 02:37–39. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Li Y, Wang Z, Shi W, et al. (2010) Slope debris flows in the Wenchuan Earthquake area, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Mountain Science 7(3): 226–233. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-010-2014-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu HJ, Lan HX (2012) Hazard simulation and assessment of rockfall along Dujiangyan-Wenchuan Highway after 5.12 Wenchuan Earthquake, Beijing, China. Resources Science 34(2):345–352. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Süzen ML, Kaya BS (2012) Evaluation of environmental parameters in logistic regression models for landslide susceptibility mapping, England. International Journal of Digital Earth 5(4):338–355. DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2011.586443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Qiao XX (2006) GIS-based risk assessment for geological disasters of highway in complex mountainous areas, Shaanxi Province, China. Chang’an University. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Wang FW, et al. (2005) Dynamic properties of earthquake-induced large-scale rapid landslides within past landslide masses. Landslides 2(2): 125–134. DOI: 10.1007/s10346-005-0055-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miles SB (2011) Participatory model assessment of earthquakeinduced landslide hazard models. Natural Hazards 56(3):749–766. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-010-9587-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tie YB, Tang C (2005) Information entropy-based hazard assessment of debris flow gully, Shaanxi Province, China. Journal of Catastrophology 12(4): 25–30. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Wang HB, Sassa K, Xu WY (2007) Analysis of a spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Natural Hazards 41(1):43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang KL, Lin ML (2010) Development of shallow seismic landslide potential map based on Newmark’s displacement: the case study of Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, China. Environmental Earth Sciences 60(4): 775–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang XM, Jiang QH, Zhang QH, et al. (2006) Application of Flac-3D associated with the three-dimensional limiting equilibrum method in slope stability analysis, Beijing, China. Science Press. ppp148–155. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Wang ZZ, Gao B, Jiang YJ, et al. (2009) Investigation and assessment on mountain tunnels and geotechnical damage after the Wenchuan Earthquake. Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences 52(2):546–558. DOI: 10.1007/s11431-009-0054-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wei YX, Yang JG (2000) Overview of the control technology of slope geo-hazard, Sichuan Province, China. Subgrade Engineering 06:4–7. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Yilmaz I (2009) Landslide susceptibility mapping using frequency ratio, logistic regression, artificial neural networks and their comparison: a case study from Kat landslides (Tokat-Turkey). Computers and Geosciences 35(6): 1125–1138. DOI: 10.1007/s12040-013-0282-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xu M, Wang Z, Qi L, et al. (2012) Disaster chains initiated by the Wenchuan Earthquake. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(4): 975–985. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-011-0905-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yin Y, Wang F, Sun P (2009) Landslide hazards triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China. Landslides 6(2): 139–152. DOI: 10.1007/s10346-009-0148-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhuang JQ, Cui P, Ge YG, et al. (2009) Hazard assessment of debris flow valleys along Dujiangyan-Wenchuan Highway after 5.12 Wenchuan devastating earthquake. Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition) (3): 131–139. (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong-shun Han
    • 1
  • Shao-kun Dong
    • 1
  • Zheng-chao Chen
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kai-heng Hu
    • 3
  • Feng-huan Su
    • 3
  • Peng Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Hunan Province Engineering Laboratory of Geo-spatial InformationHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtanChina
  2. 2.Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital EarthChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina

Personalised recommendations