Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp 770–787 | Cite as

A review of colloid transport in fractured rocks

  • Wei Zhang
  • Xiangyu TangEmail author
  • Noam Weisbrod
  • Zhuo Guan


Recent recognition of colloid and colloida-ssociated transport of strongly sorbing contaminants in fractured rocks highlights the importance of exploring the transport behavior of colloids under conditions prevailing in the field. The rapid transport of colloids through fractured rocks-as affected by the hydraulic properties of the flow system, the properties of fracture surface and the geochemical conditions-has not been sufficiently elucidated, and predictions of colloid transport through fractures have encountered difficulties, particularly at the field scale. This article reviews the current understanding of the mechanisms and modeling of colloid transport and retention in fractured rocks. Commonly used experimental techniques and approaches for conducting colloid transport experiments at different scales, ranging from the laboratory to the field scale, are summarized and commented upon. The importance of various interactions (e.g., dissolution, colloid deposition, generation, mobilization and deposition of filling materials within fractures) between the flowing solution and the fracture walls (in many cases, with skin or coating on the host rock at the liquid — solid interface) has been stressed. Colloid transport through fractures of high heterogeneity has not yet been well understood and modeled at the field scale. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and understanding accumulated in the last two decades in regard to colloid and colloid-associated transport through fractures. Future research needs are also discussed.


Colloid transport Colloid retention Fracture Rock 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdel-Salam A, Chrysikopoulos CV (1994) Analytical solutions for one-dimensional colloid transport in saturated fractures. Advances in Water Resources 17(5): 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Salam A, Chrysikopoulos CV (1995) Analysis of a model for contaminant transport in fractured media in the presence of colloids. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 165: 261–281.Google Scholar
  3. Alonso U, Missana T, Patelli A, et al. (2007) Colloid diffusion in crystalline rock: An experimental methodology to measure diffusion coefficients and evaluate colloid size dependence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 259: 372–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alonso U, Missana T, Patelli A, et al. (2009) Quantification of Au nanoparticles retention on a heterogeneous rock surface. Colloid and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 347: 230–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avigour A, Bahat D (1990) Chemical weathering of fractured Eocene chalks in the Negev, Israel. Chemical Geology 89(1–2): 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bales RC, Gerba CP, Grondin GH, et al. (1989) Bacteriophage transport in sandy soil and fractured tuff. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55(8): 2061–2067.Google Scholar
  7. Baek I, Pitt WW (1996) Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock. Waste Management 16(4): 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayoudh S, Othmane A, Mora L, et al. (2009) Assessing bacteria adhesion using DLVO and XDLVO theories and the jet impingement technique. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 73: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker MW, Reimus PW, Vilks P (1999) Transport and attenuation of carboxylate-modified latex microspheres in fractured rock laboratory and field tracer tests. Ground Water 37(3): 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker MW, Metge DW, Collins SA, et al. (2003) Bacterial transport experiments in fractured crystalline bedrock. Ground Water 41(5): 682–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bedrikovetsky P, Siqueira FD, Furtado CA, et al. (2011) Modified particle detachment model for colloidal transport in porous media. Transport in Porous Media 86: 353–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bedrikovetsky P, Zeinijahromi A, Siqueira FD, et al. (2012) Particle detachment under velocity alteration during suspension transport in porous media. Transport in Porous Media 91: 173–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergendahl J, Grasso D (1999) Prediction of colloid detachment in a model porous media: thermodynamics. AIChE Journal 45(3): 475–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergendahl J, Grasso D (2000) Prediction of colloid detachment in a model porous media: hydrodynamics. Chemical Engineering Science 55: 1523–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Birkholzer J, Tsang CF (1997) Solute channeling in unsaturated heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research 33(10): 2221–2238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boutt DF, Grasselli G, Fredrich J, et al. (2006) Trapping zones: The effect of fracture roughness on the directional anisotropy of fluid flow and colloid transport in a single fracture. Geophysical Research Letters 33(21), DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027275.Google Scholar
  17. Bowen BD, Epstein N (1979) Fine particle deposition in smooth parallel-plate channels. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 72(1): 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradford SA, Simunek J, Bettahar M, et al. (2003) Modeling colloid attachment, straining, and exclusion in saturated porous media. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 2242–2250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradford SA, Simunek J, Bettahar M, et al. (2006) Significance of straining in colloid deposition: Evidence and implications. Water Resources Research 42, DOI: 10.1029/2005WR004791.Google Scholar
  20. Bradford SA, Torkzaban S (2008) Colloid transport and retention in unsaturated porous media: A review of interface-, collector-, and pore-scale processes and models. Vadose Zone Journal 7(2): 667–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown S, Caprihan A, Hardy R (1998) Experimental observation of fluid flow channels in a single fracture. Water Resources Research 103(b3): 5125–5132.Google Scholar
  22. Buddemeier RW, Hunt J (1988) Transport of colloidal contaminants in groundwater radionuclide migration at the Nevada test site. Applied Geochemistry 3(5): 535–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cail T, Hochella MF (2005) Experimentally derived sticking efficiencies of microparticles using atomic force microscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 1011–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Champ DR, Schroeter J (1988) Bacterial transport in fractured rock: A field-scale tracer test at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Water Science and Technology 20(11/12): 81–87.Google Scholar
  25. Chatterjee N, Lapin S, Flury M (2012) Capillary forces between sediment particles and an Air-Water interface. Environmental Science & Technology 46: 4411–4418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen Z, Qian JZ, Qin H (2011) Experimental study of the non-Darcy flow and solute transport in a channeled single fracture. Journal of Hydrodynamics 23(6): 745–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheng T, Saiers JE (2009) Mobilization and transport of in situ colloids during drainage and imbibition of partially saturated sediments. Water Resources Research 45, DOI: 10.1029/2008WR007494.Google Scholar
  28. Cherubini C, Giasi CI, Pastore N (2012) Bench scale laboratory tests to analyze non-linear flow in fractured media. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 9: 5575–5609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chinju H, Kuno Y, Nagasaki S, et al. (2001) Deposition behavior of polystyrene latex particles on solid surfaces during migration through an artificial fracture in a granite rock sample. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 38(6): 439–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chrysikopoulos CV, Abdel-Salam A (1997) Modeling colloid transport and deposition in saturated fractures. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 121: 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cook BK, Noble DR, Williams JR (2004) A direct simulation method for particle-fluid systems. Engineering Computations: International Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering 21(2-3): 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Corapcioglu MY, Wang S (1999) Dual-porosity groundwater contaminant transport in the presence of colloids. Water Resources Research 35(11): 3261–3273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cumbie DH, McKay LD (1999) Influence of diameter on particle transport in a fractured shale saprolite. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 37: 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dahan O, Nativ R, Adar ME, et al. (1998) A measurement system to determine water flux and solute transport through fractures in the unsaturated zone. Ground Water 36(3): 444–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dahan O, Nativ R, Adar EM, et al. (2000) On fracture structure and preferential flow in unsaturated chalk. Ground Water 38(3): 444–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Darbha GK, Schäfer T, Heberling F, et al. (2010) Retention of latex colloids on calcite as a function of surface roughness and topography. Langmuir 26(7): 4343–4752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Darbha GK, Fischer C, Michler A, et al. (2012) Deposition of latex colloids at rough mineral surfaces: An analogue study using nanopatterned surfaces. Langmuir 28: 6606–6617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Degueldre C, Baeyens B, Goerlich W, et al. (1989) Colloids in water from a subsurface fracture in granitic rock, Grinisel Test Site, Switzerland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53(3): 603–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DeNovio NM, Saiers JE, Ryan JN (2004) Colloid movement in unsaturated porous media: Recent advances and future directions. Vadose Zone Journal 3(2): 338–351.Google Scholar
  40. DiCarlo DA, Zevi Y, Dathe A (2006) In situ measurements of colloid transport and retention using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Water Resources Research 42, DOI: 10.1029/2005WR004850.Google Scholar
  41. Dijk P, Berkowitz B (1998) Precipitation and dissolution of reactive solutes in fractures. Water Resources Research 34: 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fischer C, Karius V, Lüttge A (2009) Correlation between submicron surface roughness of iron oxide encrustations and trace element concentrations. Science of the Total Environment 407: 4703–4710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frimmel FH, von der Kammer F, Flemming HC (2007) Colloidal transport in porous media. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fu L, Milliken KL, Sharp Jr (1994) Porosity and permeability variations in fractured and liesegang-banded Breathitt sandstones (Middle Pennsylvanian), eastern Kentucky: diagenetic controls and implications for modeling dualporosity systems. Journal of Hydrology 154(1–4): 351–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goebes MD, Younger PL (2004) A simple analytical model for interpretation of tracer tests in two-domain subsurface flow systems. Mine Water and the Environment 23: 138–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gooddy DC, Mathias SA, Harrison I, et al. (2007) The significance of colloids in the transport of pesticides through Chalk. Science of the Total Environment 385(1–3): 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grindrod P (1993) The impact of colloids on the migration and dispersal of radionuclides within fractured rock. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 13: 167–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grindrod P, Lee AJ (1997) Colloid migration in symmetrical non-uniform fractures: particle tracking in three dimensions. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 27: 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gschwend PM, Backhus DA, MacFARLANE JK, et al. (1990) Mobilization of colloids in groundwater due to infiltration of water at a coal ash disposal site. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 6: 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hinsby K, McKay LD, Jørgensen P, et al. (1996) Fracture aperture measurements and migration of solutes, viruses, and immiscible creosote in a column of clay-rich till. Ground Water 34(6): 1065–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Henry C, Minier JP, Lefevre G, et al. (2011) Numerical study on the deposition rate of hematite particle on polypropylene walls: role of surface roughness. Langmuir 27: 4603–4612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hoek EMV, Agarwal GK (2006) Extended DLVO interactions between spherical particles and rough surfaces. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 298: 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huber F, Enzmann F, Wenka A (2012) Natural micro-scale heterogeneity induced solute and nanoparticle retardation in fractured crystalline rock. Journal Contaminant Hydrology 133: 40–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hwang Y, Pigford TH, Lee WWL (1990) Analytic solution of pseudo-colloid migration in fractured rock. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 176: 599–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ibaraki M, Sudicky EA (1995a) Colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in discretely fractured porous media: 1. Numerical formulation and sensitivity analysis. Water Resources Research 31(12): 2945–2960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ibaraki M, Sudicky EA (1995b) Colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in discretely fractured porous media: 2. Fracture network examples. Water Resources Research 31(12): 2961–2969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. James SC, Bilezikjian TK, Chrysikopoulos CV (2005) Contaminant transport in a fracture with spatially variable aperture in the presence of monodisperse and polydisperse colloids. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 19(4): 266–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. James SC, Chrysikopoulos VC (1999) Transport of polydisperse colloid suspensions in a single fracture. Water Resources Research 35(3): 707–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. James SC, Chrysikopoulos VC (2000) Transport of polydisperse colloids in a saturated fracture with spatially variable aperture. Water Resources Research 36(6):1457–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. James SC, Chrysikopoulos CV (2003) Analytical solutions for monodisperse and polydisperse colloid transport in uniform fractures. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 226(1–3): 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. James SC, Chrysikopoulos CV (2011) Monodisperse and polydisperse colloid transport in water-saturated fractures with various orientations: Gravity effects. Advances in Water Resources 34: 1249–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keller AA, Auset M (2007) A review of visualization techniques of biocolloid transport processes at the pore scale under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Advances in Water Resource 30(6–7): 1392–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kessler JH, Hunt JR (1994) Dissolved and colloidal contaminant transport in a partially clogged fracture. Water Resources Research 30(4): 1195–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim SB, Corapcioglu MY (2002) Contaminant transport in dualporosity media with dissolved organic matter and bacteria present as mobile colloids. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 59: 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Knapp RB, Chiarappa ML, Durham WB (2000) An experimental exploration of the transport and capture of abiotic colloids in a single fracture. Water Resources Research 36(11): 3139–3149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kosmulski M (2002) The pH-dependent surface charging and the points of zero charge. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 253: 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kosmulski M (2006) pH-dependent surface charging and the points of zero charge III. Update. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 298: 730–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Koyama T, Neretnieks I, Jing L (2008) A numerical study on differences in using Navier-Stokes and Reynolds equations for modeling the fluid flow and particle transport in single rock fractures with shear. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Ming Sciences 45: 1082–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kretzschmar R, Borkovec M, Grolimund D, et al. (1999) Mobile subsurface colloids and their role in contaminant transport. Advances in Agronomy 66: 121–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lapworth DJ, Gooddy DC, Harrison I (2005) Colloidal phase transport of pesticides: A review with special reference to major UK aquifers. British Geological Survey Internal Report: 1-22.Google Scholar
  71. Lazouskaya V, Jin Y (2008) Colloid retention at air-water interface in a capillary channel. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physichemical and Engineering Aspects 325: 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lazouskaya V, Wang LP, Gao H, et al. (2011) Pore-Scale investigation of colloid retention and mobilization in the presence of a moving air-water interface. Vadose Zone Journal 10(4): 1250–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lenhart JJ, Saiers JE (2002) Transport of silica colloids through unsaturated porous media: Experimental results and model comparisons. Environmental Science & Technology 36: 769–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Li X, Zhang P, Lin CL, Johnson WP (2005) Role of hydrodynamic drag on microsphere deposition and reentrainment in porous media under unfavorable conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 4012–4020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Li SH, Jen CP (2001) Migration of radionuclides in porous rock in the presence of colloids: The effects of kinetic interactions. Waste Management 21: 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu HH, Haukwa CB, Ahlers CF, et al. (2003) Modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: An evaluation of the continuum approach. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 62–63: 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lu G, Liu HH, Salve R (2011) Long term infiltration and tracer transport in fractured rocks: Field observations and model analyses. Journal of Hydrology 396(1-2): 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Martines E, Csaderova L, Morgan H, et al. (2008) DLVO interaction energy between a sphere and a nano-patterned plate. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 318: 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Masciopinto C, Mantia RL, Chrysikopoulos CV (2008) Fate and transport of pathogens in a fractured aquifer in the Salento area, Italy. Water Resources Research 44(1), DOI: 10.1029/2006WR005643.Google Scholar
  80. McCarthy JF, McKay LD (2004) Colloid Transport in the Subsurface Past, Present, and Future Challenges. Vadose Zone Journal 3: 326–337.Google Scholar
  81. McCarthy JF, McKay LD, Bruner DD (2002) Influence of ionic strength and cation charge on transport of colloidal particles in fractured shale saprolite. Environmental Science & Technology 36: 3735–3743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McKay LD, Cherry JA, Bales RC, et al. (1993a) A field example of bacteriophage as tracers of fracture flow. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27: 1075–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McKay LD, Gillham RW, Cherry JA (1993b) Field experiments in a fractured clay till 2. Solute and colloid transport. Water Resources Research 29(12): 3879–3890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McKay LD, Sanford WE, Strong JM (2000) Field-scale migration of colloidal tracers in a fractured shale saprolite. Ground Water 38(1): 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mills WB, Liu S, Fong FK (1991) Literature review and model (COMET) for colloid/metals transport in porous media. Ground Water 29(2): 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Möri A, Alexander WR, Geckeis H, et al. (2003) The colloid and radionuclide retardation experiment at the Grimsel Test Site: influence of bentonite colloids on radionuclide migration in a fractured rock. Colloid and surface A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 217: 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mondal PK, Sleep BE (2012) Colloid transport in dolomite rock fractures: Effects of fracture characteristics, specific discharge, and ionic strength. Environmental Science & Technology 46: 9987–9994.Google Scholar
  88. Moridis GJ, Hu Q, Wu YS, et al. (2003) Preliminary 3-D sitescale studies of radioactive colloid transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 60(3–4): 251–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mortensen AP (2001) Preferential flow phenomena in partiallysaturated porous media. Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.Google Scholar
  90. Mortensen AP, Jensen KH, Nilsson B, et al. (2004) Multiple tracing experiments in unsaturated fractured clayey till. Vadose Zone Journal 3: 634–644.Google Scholar
  91. Nair VV, Thampi SG (2010) Numerical modelling of colloid transport in sets of parallel fractures with fracture skin. Colloid and surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 346: 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Natarajan N, Kumar GS (2010) Colloidal transport in a coupled sinusoidal fracture matrix system. International Journal of Geology 4(2): 41–47.Google Scholar
  93. Natarajan N, Kumar GS (2012) Colloidal transport in a coupled fracture skin matrix system with sinusoidal fracture geometry. International Journal of Geology 6(1): 1–7.Google Scholar
  94. Neuman SP (2005) Trends, prospects and challenges in quantifying flow and transport through fractured rocks. Hydrogeology Journal 13: 124–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oswald JG, Ibaraki M (2001) Migration of colloids in discretely fractured porous media: effect of colloidal matrix diffusion. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 52: 213–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ota K, Möri A, Alexander WR, et al. (2003) Influence of the mode of matrix porosity determination on matrix diffusion calculations. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 61: 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pronk M, Goldscheider N, Zopfi J (2006) Dynamics and interaction of organic carbon, turbidity and bacteria in a karst aquifer system. Hydrogeology Journal 4: 473–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pronk M, Goldscheider N, Zopfi J, et al. (2009) Percolation and particle transport in the unsaturated zone of a karst aquifer. Ground Water 47(3): 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Puls RW, Paul CJ, Clark DA (1993) Surface chemical effects on colloid stability and transport through natural porous media. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 73: 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Qu Junlei (2010) A Comparison of biocolloid and colloid transport in single, saturated rock fractures. Master Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  101. Reimus PW (1995) The use of synthetic colloids in tracer transport experiments in saturated rock fractures. Report LA-13004-T. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos National Laboratory.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reimus PW, Robinson BA, Nuttall HE, et al. (1995) Simultaneous transport of synthetic colloids and a nonsorbing solute through single saturated natural fractures. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 353(1): 363–370.Google Scholar
  103. Robinson NI, Sharp JM, Kreisel I (1998) Contaminant transport in sets of parallel finite fractures with fracture skins. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 31: 83–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ryan JN, Elimelech M (1996) Colloid mobilization and transport in ground water. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 107: 1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ryan JN, Gschwend PM (1994) Effects of ionic strength and flow rate on colloid release: Relating kinetics to intersurface potential energy. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 164: 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sadeghi G, Schijven JF, Behreds T, et al. (2011) Systematic study of effects of pH and ionic strength on attachment of Phage PRD. Ground Water 49(1): 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Santos A, Bedrikovetsky P (2004) Size exclusion during particle suspension transport in porous media: stochastic and averaged equations. Computational and Applied Mathematics 23: 259–284.Google Scholar
  108. Santos A, Bedrikovetsky P (2005) A stochastic model for particulate suspension flow in porous media. Transport in Porous Media 62: 23–53, DOI: 10.1007/s11242-005-5157-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schäfer T, Huber F, Seher H, et al. (2012) Nanoparticles and their influence on radionuclide mobility in deep geological formations. Apllied Geochemistry 27: 390–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sen TK, Khilar KC (2006) Review on subsurface colloids and colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 119(2–3): 71–96.Google Scholar
  111. SimUnek J, He C, Pang LP, et al. (2006) Colloid-facilitated solute transport in variably saturated porous media: Numerical model and experimental verification. Vadose Zone Journal 5: 1035–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shapiro AA, Bedrikovetsky PG (2010) A stochastic theory for deep bed filtration accounting for dispersion and size distributions. Physica A 389: 2473–2494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Shevenell L, McCarthy JF (2002) Effects of precipitation events on colloids in a karst aquifer. Journal of Hydrology 255: 50–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sinton LW, Mackenzie ML, Karki N (2012) Transport of Escherichia coli and F-RNA Bacteriophages in a 5-M Column of Saturated, Heterogeneous Gravel. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 223: 2347–2360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sprague LA, Herman JS, Hornberger GM, et al. (2000) Atrazine adsorption and colloid-facilitated transport through the unsaturated zone. Journal of Environmental Research 29: 1632–1641.Google Scholar
  116. Smith PA, Degueldre C (1993) Colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides through fractured media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 13: 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Snow DT (1970) The frequency and apertures of fractures in rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 7(1): 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Story SP, Amy P, Bishop CW, et al. (1995) Bacteria transport in volcanic tuff cores under saturated flow conditions. Geomicrobiology Journal 13(4): 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Su G.W, Nimmo JR (2003) Effect of isolated fractures on accelerated flow in unsaturated porous rock. Water Resources Research 39(12), DOI: 10.1029/2002WR001691.Google Scholar
  120. Swanton SW (1995) Modelling colloid transport in groundwater; The prediction of colloid stability and retention behaviour. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 54: 129–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tang XY, Weisbrod N (2009) Colloid-facilitated transport of lead in natural discrete fractures. Environmental Pollution 157: 2266–2274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tang XY, Weisbrod N (2010) Dissolved and colloidal transport of cesium in natural discrete fractures. Journal of Environmental Quality 39: 1066–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Thoma SG, Gallegos DP, Smith DM (1992) Impact of fracture coatings on fracture/matrix flow interactions in unsaturated, porous media. Water Resources Research 28(5): 1357–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tokunaga TK, Wan J (1997) Water film flow along fracture surfaces of porous rock. Water Resources Research 36(6): 1287–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Toran L, Palumbo AV (1992) Colloid transport through fractured and unfractured laboratory sand columns. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 9(3): 289–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Torkzaban S, Bradford SA, van Genuchten MT, et al. (2008) Colloid transport in unsaturated porous media: The role of water content and ionic strength on particle straining. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 96: 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vilks P, Bachinski DB (1996) Colloids and suspended particle migration experiments in a granite fracture. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 21: 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Vilks P, Frost LH, Bachinski DB (1997) Filed scale colloids migration experiments in a granite fracture. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 26: 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vilks P, Miller NH (2009) Bentonite and Latex Colloid Migration Experiments in a Granite Fracture on a Metre Scale to Evaluate Effects of Particle Size and Flow Velocity. Published by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Report No.: NWMO TR-2009-26.Google Scholar
  130. Vilks P, Miller NH, Vorauer A (2008) Laboratory bentonite colloid migration experiments to support the Äspö Colloid Project. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33: 1035–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wan J, Tokunago TK (1997) Film straining of colloids in unsaturated porous media: Conceptual model and experimental testing. Environmental Science & Technology 31(8): 2413–2420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wan J, Wilson JL (1994) Visualization of the role of the gaswater interface on the fate and transport of colloids in porous media. Water Resources Research 30(1): 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Weisbrod N, Dahan O, Adar EA (2002) Particle transport in unsaturated fractured chalk under arid conditions. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 56: 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Weisbrod N, Nativ R, Adar EM, et al. (1999) Impact of intermittent rainwater and wastewater flow on coated and uncoated fractures in chalk. Water Resources Research 35(11): 3211–3222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Weisbrod N, Nativ R, Adar EM, et al. (2000a) Impact of coating and weathering on the properties of chalk fracture surfaces. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 27853–27864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Weisbrod N, Nativ R, Adar EM, et al. (2000b) Salt accumulation and flushing in unsaturated fractures in an arid environment. Ground Water 38(3): 452–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weisbrod N, Nativ R, Ronen D (1998) On the variability of fracture surface in unsaturated chalk. Water Resources Research 34(8): 1881–1887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wu YS, Liu HH, Bodvarsson GS (2004) A triple-continuum approach for modeling flow and transport processes in fractured rock. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 73(1–4): 145–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yuan H, Shapiro AA (2011) A mathematical model for non-monotonic deposition profiles in deep bed filtration systems. Chemical Engineering Journal 166: 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zevi Y, Dathe A, Gao B, et al. (2009) Transport and retention of colloidal particles in partially saturated porous media: Effect of ionic strength. Water Resources Research 45, DOI: 10.1029/2008WR007322.Google Scholar
  141. Zevi Y, Dathe A, McCarthy JF, et al. (2005) Distribution of colloid particles onto interfaces in partially saturated sand. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 7055–7064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zevi Y, Gao B, Zhang W (2012) Colloid retention at the meniscus-wall contact line in an open microchannel. Water Research 46: 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Zimmerman RW, Al-Yaarubi A, Pain CC, et al. (2004) Nonlinear regimes of fluid flow in rock fractures. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences 41: 384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zvikelsky O, Weisbord N (2006) Impact of particle size on colloid transport in discrete fractures. Water Resources Research 42, DOI: 10.1029/2006WR004873.Google Scholar
  145. Zvikelsky O, Weisbord N, Dody A (2008) A comparison of clay colloid and artificial microsphere transport in natural discrete fractures. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 323: 286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiangyu Tang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Noam Weisbrod
    • 2
  • Zhuo Guan
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Hydrology and Microbiology, Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, J. Blaustein Institutes for Desert ResearchBen-Gurion University of the NegevMidreshet Ben-GurionIsrael

Personalised recommendations