Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp 798–816 | Cite as

The effect of land use change on soil and water quality in northern Iran

  • Yones KhaledianEmail author
  • Farshad Kiani
  • Sohaila Ebrahimi
Article

Abstract

Rapid urbanization has led to extensive land-use changes, particularly in developing countries. This research is aimed to investigate the role of land use and its effect on soil and water quality in Ziarat watershed focusing on four land uses: forest, pasture, cultivated and urban development. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0–30 cm on each land use and were analyzed by completely randomized split-plot design in two geographical directions. Results showed that bulk density (BD), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), and soil particle density (DS) of the soil samples in pastures, cultivated and urban areas increased and the mean weight diameter (MWD), soil porosity (F), organic carbons (OC), total nitrogen (TN), exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil microbial respirations (SMR) decreased, respectively in comparison with the forest soils. For water quality evaluations, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), bicarbonate (HCO3 ), chloride (Cl), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), sodium (Na+) and magnesium (Mg2+) were investigated in two areas: Nahrkhoran and Abgir stations. Results showed that the concentration of TDS, EC and HCO3 in Naharkhoran station is higher than that in Abgir station. On the other hand, the concentration of TDS, EC and HCO3 in Abgir station are the relatively higher due to its location. Total hardness had the same trend during the study years except in the last three years; however, TH showed an increase of 25% TH in Naharkhoran for the last two years. Cl, K+ and SAR in Naharkhoran station increased by 61%, 22%, 78% and 56% respectively, in comparison with Abgir station. This study demonstrated that the trend of soil degradation and mismanagement of land use may increase the frequency of urban floods and human health problems.

Keywords

Deforestation Organic matter loss Soil degradation Soil quality Urbanization Water quality 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

analysis of variance

BD

bulk density

Ca2+

calcium

CCE

calcium carbonate equivalent

CEC

cation exchange capacity

Cl

chloride

CV

coefficient of variation

DS

soil particle density

EC

electrical conductivity

F

soil porosity

HCO3

bicarbonate

K+

potassium

Mg2+

magnesium

MWD

mean weight diameter

Na+

sodium

OC

soil organic carbon

SAR

sodium adsorption ratio

SMR

soil microbial respiration

SO42−

sulfate

TDS

total dissolved solids

TH

total hardness

TN

total nitrogen

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angers DA, Mehuys GR (1993) Aggregate stability to water. In: Carte MR (eds.), Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Lewis Pubs., Boca Raton, Florida, USA. pp 651–657.Google Scholar
  2. AOAC (1990) In: Official Methods of Analysis, 15th (Eds.), (Vol. 1). Association of Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VI, USA, p 312.Google Scholar
  3. APHA, AWWA, WEF (2005) In: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st (Eds.), American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Bewket W, Stroosnijder L (2003) Effects of agroecological land use succession on soil properties in Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Geoderma 111: 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986a) Bulk density. In: A. Klute (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 363–382.Google Scholar
  6. Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986b) Soil particle density. In: Klute A (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 377–382.Google Scholar
  7. Bormann H, Klaassen K (2008) Seasonal and land use dependent variability of soil hydraulic and soil hydrological properties of two Northern German soils. Journal of Geoderma 145: 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouwer H (1986) Intake rate: cylinder infiltrometer. In: Klute A (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I: Physical Analysis. 2nd (Eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 825–844.Google Scholar
  9. Brejda JJ, Moorman TB, Karlen DL, et al. (2000) Identification of regional soil quality factors and indicators. I. Central and southern high plains. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 2115–2124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bremner JM (1996) Nitrogene-total. In: Bigham et al. (eds.), Methods of Soil Analyses, Part 3, Chemical Methods. 2nd (Eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 1085–1184.Google Scholar
  11. Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B (2002) Land use in relation to chemical and biochemical properties in semiarid Mediterranean environment. Journal of Soil Tillage Research 68: 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Celik I (2005) Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Journal of Soil Tillage Research 83: 270–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapman HD (1965) Cation exchange capacity. In: Black CA (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 891–901.Google Scholar
  14. Dang VM, Anderson DW, Farrell RE (2002) Indicators for assessing soil quality after long-term tea cultivation in Northern Mountainous Vietnam. In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress Soil Science held in Bangkok, Thailand, 14–21 August, 2002. pp 14–21.Google Scholar
  15. Desjardins T, Barros E, Sarrazin M, et al. (2004) Effects of forest conversion to pasture on soil carbon content and dynamics in Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 103: 365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drewry JJ, Cameron KC, Buchan GD (2001) Effect of simulated dairy cow treading on soil physical properties and ryegrass pasture yield. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 44: 181–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Drewry JJ, Cameron KC, Buchan GD (2008) Pasture yield and soil physical property responses to soil compaction from treading and grazing — a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46: 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duh JD, Shandas V, Chang H, et al. (2008) Rates of urbanization and the resiliency of air and water quality. Journal of Science of the Total Environment 400: 238–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eby GN, (2004) Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning, Pacific Grove, CA. p 514.Google Scholar
  20. Emadi M, Baghernejad M, Memari HR (2009) Effect of landuse change on soil fertility characteristics within water-stable aggregates of two cultivated soils in northern Iran. Journal of Land Use Policy 26: 452–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farahmand T, Fleming SW, Quilty EJ (2007) Detection and visualization of storm hydrograph changes under urbanization: an impulse response approach. Journal of Environmental Management 85: 93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fitzsimmons MJ, Pennock DJ, Thorpe J (2004) Effects of deforestation on ecosystem carbon densities in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Forest Ecology Management 188: 349–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Food and Agriculture Organization of Tehran, Iran (2003) Technical assistance for soil conservation and watershed management in Golestan province-IRAN. Adjustment plan for soil conversation consultant Zhu Qingke. Beijing Forestry university, Beijing, China, UTF/IRA/051/IRA.Google Scholar
  24. Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Management Organization (1999) Detailed survey on the management of renewable resources. Gorgan, Iran, p. 143.Google Scholar
  25. Franzluebbers AJ (2002) Water infiltration and soil structure related to organic matter and its stratification with depth. Journal of Soil Tillage Research 66: 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gale WJ, Cambardella CA, Biley TB (2000) Root-derived carbon and the formation and stabilization of aggregates. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In: Klute A (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd (ed.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 383–411.Google Scholar
  28. Griffiths RP, Madritch MD, Swanson AK (2009) The effects of topography on forest soil characteristics in the Oregon Cascade Mountains (USA): Implications for the effects of climate change on soil properties. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hajabbasi MA, Jalalian A, Karimzadeh HR (1997) Deforestation effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Iran. Journal of Plant and Soil 190(2): 301–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. He H, Zhou J, Wu Y, et al. (2008) Modeling the response of surface water quality to the urbanization in Xi’an, China. Journal of Environmental Management 86(4): 731–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Houghton RA (1999). The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land-use 1850–1990. Tellus B 51: 298–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Islam KR, Weil RR (2000) Land use effects on soil quality in a tropical forest ecosystem of Bangladesh. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 79: 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ismawi SM, Gandaseca S, Ahmed OH (2012) Effects of deforestation on soil major macro-nutrient and other selected chemical properties of secondary tropical peat swamp forest. International Journal of Physical Sciences 7(14): 2225–2228.Google Scholar
  34. Jinzhu Ma, Zhenyu D, Guoxiao W, et al. (2009) Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1168–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jones RJA, Spoor G, Thomasson AJ (2003) Vulnerability of sub soils in Europe to compaction: a preliminary analysis. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 73: 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karlen DL, Mausbach MJ, Doran JW, at el. (1997) Soil quality: a concept, definition and framework for evaluation. Soil Science Society America Journal 61: 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kazi TG, Arain MB, Jamali MK, at el. (2009) Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72: 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kemper WD, Rosenau RC (1986) Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute A (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I: Physical Analysis. 2nd (ed.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 425–442.Google Scholar
  39. Khaledian Y, Ebrahimi S, Kiani F and et al. (2012). Impact of Urbanization on Water Quality in Gharaso River in the Golestan Province, Southeast of Caspian Sea. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Urban Ecosystems (ENSURE 2012), Guwahati, Assam, India, 24–26 February, 2012.Google Scholar
  40. Khaledian Y, Kiani F, Ebrahimi S (2011). Impact of Urbanization on Some Soil Characteristics in Ziarat Watershed Golestan Province. In: proceeding of the 2011 ASA, CSSA, & SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 16–19 October, 2011.Google Scholar
  41. Khaledian Y, Kiani F, Ebrahimi S and et al. (2011) Impact of forest degradation, changing land use and building villas on some indicators of soil quality in the watershed, Golestan province. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 18(3): 167–184. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  42. Khormali F, Ajami M, Ayoubi S, et al. (2009) Role of deforestation and hillslope position on soil quality attributes of loess-derived soils in Golestan province, Iran. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 134: 178–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kiani F, Jalalian A, Pashaee A, et al. (2004) Effect of deforestation on selected soil quality attributes in loessderived landforms of Golestan province, northern Iran. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Iran and Russia Conference held in Shahr-e-Kord, Iran, 8–10 September, 2004, pp 546–550.Google Scholar
  44. Lee JH, Hamma SY, Cheong JY, et al. (2009) Characterizing riverbank-filtered water and river water qualities at a site in the lower Nakdong River basin, Republic of Korea. Journal of Hydrology 376: 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li S, Gu S, Liu W, Han H et al. (2008) Water quality in relation to land use and land cover in the upper Han River Basin, China. Journal of Catena 75: 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li S, Li J, Zhang Q (2011) Water quality assessment in the rivers along the water conveyance system of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project (China) using multivariate statistical techniques and receptor modeling. Journal of Hazardous Materials 195: 306–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martinez L, Zinck J (2004) Temporal variation of soil compaction and deterioration of soil quality in pasture areas of Colombian Amazonia. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 75(1): 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marzaioli R, D’Ascoli R, De Pascale RA, et al. (2010) Soil quality in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy as related to different land use types. Journal of Applied Soil Ecology 44: 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. May AM, Mutasem E, Mark DS, et al. (2006) Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon. Journal of Science of the Total Environment 362: 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McLean EO (1982) Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Page AL, Mille R, Keeney DR (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 199–224.Google Scholar
  51. McQueen DJ, Shepherd TG (2002) Physical changes and compaction sensitivity of a fine-textured, poorly drained soil (Typic Endoaquept) under varying durations of cropping, Manawatu Region, New Zealand. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 63: 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Metzger MJ, Rounsevell MDA, Acosta-Michlik L, et al. (2006) The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change. Journal of Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 114: 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mirakhorlou K, Amin Amlashi M, Karimi Doust A, et al. (2006) Investigation on boundary changes of northern forests of Iran using remotely sensed data. Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland Karaj(Iran). Report No 28021. http://agris.fao.org
  54. Mojiri A, Emami N, Ghafari N (2011) Effects of Land Use Changes on Soil Quality Attributes (A Review). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 7(1): 1–3Google Scholar
  55. Moreno-de las Heras M (2009) Development of soil physical structure and biological functionality in mining spoils affected by soil erosion in a Mediterranean-Continental environment. Journal of Geoderma 149: 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mousavi SM (2012) Application of Rosgen classification the Ziarat watershed, Gorgan. Journal of American Science 8(4): 184–189Google Scholar
  57. National Research Council (1993) Soil and water quality. An agenda for agriculture. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  58. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 539–579.Google Scholar
  59. Noori R, Sabahi MS, Karbassi AR, et al. (2010) Multivariate statistical analysis of surface water quality based on correlations and variations in the data set. Journal of Desalination 260: 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ogunkunle AO, Eghaghara OO (2007) Influence of land use on soil properties in a forest region of Southern Nigeria. Journal of Soil Use and Management 8(3): 121–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Olivera F, DeFee BB (2007) Urbanization and its effect on runoff in the Whiteoak Bayou watershed, Texas. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(1): 17082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ouyang P, Nkedi-Kizza QT, Wu DS, et al. (2006) Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality. Journal of Water Resources. 40: 3800–3810.Google Scholar
  63. Page AL (1992) Methods of Soil Analysis. ASA and SSSA publishers, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. p 321.Google Scholar
  64. Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (1982) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd (eds.), ASA, SSSA, CSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 595–623.Google Scholar
  65. Pathak P, Sahrawat KL, Rego TJ, et al. (2004) Measurable biophysical indicators for impact assessment: changes in soil quality. In: Shiferaw, B., Freeman, H.A., Swinton, S.M. (eds.), Natural Resource Management in Agriculture. Methods for Assessing Economic and Environmental Impacts. Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, India.Google Scholar
  66. Powlson DS, Brookes PC, Christensen BT (1987) Measurement of microbial biomass provides an early indication of changes in total soil organic matter due to the straw incorporation. Journal of Soil Biology and Biochemistry 9: 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Priess JA, Mimler M, Klein AM, et al. (2007) Linking deforestation scenarios to pollination services and economic returns in coffee agroforestry systems. Journal of Ecological Applications 17(2): 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reginster I, Rounsevell MDA (2006) Future scenarios of urban land use in Europe. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 33(4): 619–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reynolds WD, Drury CF, Yang XM, et al. (2008) Optimal soil physical quality inferred through structural regression and parameter interactions. Journal of Geoderma 146: 466–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rhoades JD (1982) Soluble salts. In: Page AL (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. p 167–179.Google Scholar
  71. Rounsevell MDA, Reay DS (2009) Land use and climate change in the UK. Journal of Land use policy 26S: S160–S169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sanchez-Maranon M, Soriano M, Delgado G, et al. (2002) Soil quality in Mediterranean mountain environments: effects of land use change. Soil Science Society of American Journal 66: 948–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. SAS Institute (2000) SAS Online Doc. Version 8. SAS Inst., Cary, NC. Available online: http://v8doc.sas.com/sashtml/ (accesses 02.04.08; verified 23.02.04).Google Scholar
  74. Shahriari A, Khormali F, Kehl M, et al. (2011) Effect of a longterm cultivation and crop rotations on organic carbon in loess derived soils of Golestan Province, Northern Iran. International Journal of Plant Production 5(2): 1735–6814.Google Scholar
  75. Shaoshan An, Zheng F, Zhang F, et al. (2008) Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling area, China. Journal of Catena 75:248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shukla MK, Lal R, Ebinger M (2006) Determining soil quality indicators by factor analysis. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 87: 194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stotzky G (1965) Microbial respiration. In: Black CA (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 1550–1572.Google Scholar
  78. Tajgardan T, Ayoubi S, Shataee Sh (2008) Soil erosion and sediment yield assessment using MPSIAC model, remote sensing and geographic information systems (Case study: Ziarrat watershed). Journal of Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 79: 37–45. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  79. Thomas GW (1982) Exchangeable cations. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd (eds.), ASA — SSSA No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 159–165.Google Scholar
  80. Vega M, Pardo R, Barrado E, Deban L (1998) Assesment of seasonal and polluting effects on the quality of river water by exploratory data analysis. Journal of Water Research 32(12): 3581–3592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wali MK, Evrendilek F, West T, et al. (1999) Assessing terrestrial ecosystem sustainability usefulness of regional carbon and nitrogen models. Journal of Nature Resources 35: 20–33.Google Scholar
  82. Wall A, Heiskanen J (2003) Water-retention characteristics and related physical properties of soil on afforested agricultural land in Finland. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 186: 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang GX, Wang YB, Li YS, et al. (2007) Influences of alpine ecosystem responses to climatic change on soil properties on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Journal of Catena 70(3): 506–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yimer F, Ledin S, Abdelkadir A (2007) Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in three adjacent land use types in the Bale Mountains, south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 242: 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yu S, Shang J (2003) Factor analysis and dynamics of water quality of the Songhua River, Northeast China. Journal of Water Air and Soil Pollution 144: 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yuan BC, Li ZZ, Liu H, et al. (2007). Microbial biomass and activity in salt affected soils under arid conditions. Journal of Applied Soil Ecology 35: 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang CL, Zou XY, Yang P, et al. (2007) Wind tunnel test and 137Cs tracing study on wind erosion of several soils in Tibet. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 94(2): 269–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhang XP, Deng W, Yang XM (2002) The background concentrations of 13 soil trace elements and their relationships to parent materials and vegetation in Xizang (Tibet), China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21(2): 167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yones Khaledian
    • 1
    Email author
  • Farshad Kiani
    • 1
  • Sohaila Ebrahimi
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Agriculture, Department of Soil ScienceGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran

Personalised recommendations