Skip to main content

Understanding shopping routes of offline purchasers: selection of search-channels (online vs. offline) and search-platforms (mobile vs. PC) based on product types

Abstract

With the advent of the Internet and mobile technologies, shopping behavior has become increasingly complex due to the variety of channels providing consumers with various options to search and buy. However, contrary to our common belief, offline channels (compared to online channels) are still considered consumers’ preferred purchasing routes. In fact, bricks-and-mortar stores continue to function as the hub of value propositions of the retail industry. Accordingly, we take a closer look at the shopping behavior of offline shoppers. Focusing specifically on the search stage of these consumers, this study investigates the effects of shopping motives on (1) the choice of search channel (online vs. offline), (2) the selection of search platform (mobile devices vs. PCs) and (3) the moderating role of product types (search goods vs. experience goods). Our results show that the price-consciousness and shopping-enjoyment orientations have a positive influence on the probability of engaging in a webrooming behavior (i.e., search online but purchase offline) while the convenience orientation has a negative influence. Furthermore, our findings suggest that webroomers who are highly oriented towards convenience, enjoyment, and exploration are more likely to use mobile devices than stationary devices when searching information online. Lastly, our results indicate that there are differences in those selection preferences across product types. Our findings provide retailers with guidelines for developing new marketing strategies in today’s multichannel and highly mobile-oriented shopping environment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. https://www.atkearney.com/documents/10192/4683364/On+Solid+Ground.pdf/f96d82ce-e40c-450d-97bb-884b017f4cd7.

  2. https://www.pwc.ie/media-centre/assets/publications/2015-pwc-ireland-total-retail-february.pdf.

  3. http://www.data-charts.com/the-role-of-mobile-in-us-consumers-omni-channel-path-to-purchase/.

  4. p-values less than 0.05 are considered to be statistically significant.

  5. Google Consumer Barometer Survey (South Korea) 2014/2015.

References

  • Abratt R, Goodey SD (1990) Unplanned buying and in-store stimuli in supermarkets. Manag Decis Econ 11(2):111–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adelaar T, Chang S, Lancendorfer KM, Lee B, Morimoto M (2003) Effects of media formats on emotions and impulse buying intent. J Inf Technol 18(4):247–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ailawadi KL, Neslin SA, Gedenk K (2001) Pursuing the value-conscious consumer: store brands versus national brand promotions. J Market 65(1):71–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ailawadi KL, Harlam BA, Cesar J, Trounce D (2006) Promotion profitability for a retailer: the role of promotion, brand, category, and store characteristics. J Mark Res 43(4):518–535

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Babin BJ, Darden WR, Griffin M (1994) Work and/or fun: measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. J Consum Res 20(4):644–656

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balasubramanian S, Peterson RA, Jarvenpaa SL (2002) Exploring the implications of m-commerce for markets and marketing. J Acad Mark Sci 30(4):348–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumgartner H, Steenkamp JBE (1996) Exploratory consumer buying behavior: conceptualization and measurement. Int J Res Mark 13(2):121–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bellenger DN, Korgaonkar PK (1980) Profiling the recreational shopper. J Retail 56(3):77–92

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhargave R, Mantonakis A, White K (2016) The cue-of-the-cloud effect: when reminders of online information availability increase purchase intentions and choice. J Mark Res 53(5):699–711

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhatnagar A, Ghose S (2004) Online information search termination patterns across product categories and consumer demographics. J Retail 80(3):221–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bloch PH, Richins ML (1983) A theoretical model for the study of product importance perceptions. J Market 47(3):69–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chae M, Kim J (2003) What’s so different about the mobile Internet? Commun ACM 46(12):240–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chatterjee P (2010) Multiple-channel and cross-channel shopping behavior: role of consumer shopping orientations. Market Intell Plan 28(1):9–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Childers TL, Carr CL, Peck J, Carson S (2002) Hedonic and utilitarian motivations for online retail shopping behavior. J Retail 77(4):511–535

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chin WW (1998) The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. In: Marcoulides GA (ed) Modern methods for business research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah

    Google Scholar 

  • Chocarro R, Cortiñas M, Villanueva ML (2013) Situational variables in online versus offline channel choice. Electron Commer Res Appl 12(5):347–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Christodoulides G, Michaelidou N (2010) Shopping motives as antecedents of e-satisfaction and e-loyalty. J Market Manag 27(1–2):181–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cotten SR, Gupta SS (2004) Characteristics of online and offline health information seekers and factors that discriminate between them. Soc Sci Med 59(9):1795–1806

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manag Sci 35(8):982–1003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1992) Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace. J Appl Soc Psychol 22(14):1111–1132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eastlick MA, Feinberg RA (1999) Shopping motives for mail catalog shopping. J Bus Res 45(3):281–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fenech T, O’Cass A (2001) Internet users’ adoption of Web retailing: user and product dimensions. J Prod Brand Manag 10(6):361–381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flavián C, Gurrea R, Orús C (2016) Choice confidence in the webrooming purchase process: the impact of online positive reviews and the motivation to touch. J Consum Behav 15(5):459–476

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Forsythe S, Liu C, Shannon D, Liu CG (2006) Development of a scale to measure the perceived benefits and risks of online shopping. J Interact Market 20(2):55–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ganesh J, Reynolds KE, Luckett M, Pomirleanu N (2010) Online shopper motivations, and e-store attributes: an examination of online patronage behavior and shopper typologies. J Retail 86(1):106–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geyskens I, Gielens K, Dekimpe MG (2002) The market valuation of internet channel additions. J Mark 66(2):102–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghose A, Goldfarb A, Han SP (2012) How is the mobile Internet different? Search costs and local activities. Inf Syst Res 24(3):613–631

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Girard T, Silverblatt R, Korgaonkar P (2002) Influence of product class on preference for shopping on the Internet. J Comp Mediat Commun 8(1):JCM815

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith RE, Goldsmith EB (2002) Buying apparel over the Internet. J Prod Brand Manag 11(2):89–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grewal D, Iyer GR, Krishnan R, Sharma A (2003) The Internet and the price–value–loyalty chain. J Bus Res 56(5):391–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • GSMA (2013) GSMA Intelligence study predicts one billion LTE connections by 2017

  • Gupta A, Su BC, Walter Z (2004) An empirical study of consumer switching from traditional to electronic channels: a purchase-decision process perspective. Int J Electron Commer 8(3):131–161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ha YW, Park MC (2013) Antecedents of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty for emerging devices in the initial market of Korea: an equity framework. Psychol Mark 30(8):676–689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ha S, Stoel L (2012) Online apparel retailing: roles of e-shopping quality and experiential e-shopping motives. J Serv Manag 23(2):197–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ha YW, Kim J, Libaque-Saenz CF, Chang Y, Park MC (2015) Use and gratifications of mobile SNSs: facebook and KakaoTalk in Korea. Telematics Inform 32(3):425–438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harris P, Riley F, Riley D, Hand C (2017) Online and store patronage: A typology of grocery shoppers. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 45(4):419–445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heilman CM, Nakamoto K, Rao AG (2002) Pleasant surprises: Consumer response to unexpected in-store coupons. J Mark Res 39(2):242–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heitz-Spahn S (2013) Cross-channel free-riding consumer behavior in a multichannel environment: an investigation of shopping motives, socio-demographics and product categories. J Retail Consum Serv 20(6):570–578

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hiltunen M, Laukka M, Luomala J (2002) Mobile user experience. IT Press, Edita

    Google Scholar 

  • Holbrook MB, Hirschman EC (1982) The experiential aspects of consumption: consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. J Consum Res 9(2):132–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hu X, Lin Z, Whinston AB, Zhang H (2004) Hope or hype: on the viability of escrow services as trusted third parties in online auction environments. Inform Syst Res 15(3):236–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang P, Lurie NH, Mitra S (2009) Searching for experience on the web: an empirical examination of consumer behavior for search and experience goods. J Market 7(2):55–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Inman JJ, Shankar V, Ferraro R (2004) The roles of channel-category associations and geo-demographics in channel patronage. J Mark 68(2):51–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ITU (2016) Measuring the Information Society 2016. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  • Jin B, Sternquist B (2003) The influence of retail environment on price perceptions: an exploratory study of US and Korean students. Int Mark Rev 20(6):643–660

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson EJ, Bellman S, Lohse GL (2003) Cognitive lock-in and the power law of practice. J Mark 67(2):62–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones MA, Reynolds KE, Weun S, Beatty SE (2003) The product-specific nature of impulse buying tendency. J Bus Res 56(7):505–511

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kannan P, Chang AM, Whinston AB (2001) Wireless commerce: Marketing issues and possibilities. In: Proceedings of the 34th annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences (HICSS 2001)

  • Kearney AT (2015) On-solid ground: brick-and-mortar is the foundation of omnichannel retailing

  • Keen C, Wetzels M, De Ruyter K, Feinberg R (2004) E-tailers versus retailers: which factors determine consumer preferences? J Bus Res 57(7):685–695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keller KL, Staelin R (1987) Effects of quality and quantity of information on decision effectiveness. J Consum Res 14(2):200–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kleijnen M, De Ruyter K, Wetzels M (2007) An assessment of value creation in mobile service delivery and the moderating role of time consciousness. J Retail 83(1):33–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kline P (2014) An easy guide to factor analysis. Routledge, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Knox GAH (2006) Modelling and managing customers in a multichannel setting.Dissertations available from ProQuest. Paper AAI3225484. http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI3225484

  • Kollman T, Kuckertz A, Kayser I (2012) Cannibalization or synergy? Consumers’ channel selection in online-offline multichannel systems. J Retail Consum Serv 19(2):186–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Konuş U, Verhoef PC, Neslin SA (2008) Multichannel shopper segments and their covariates. J Retail 84(4):398–413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koufaris M, Kambil A, LaBarbera P (2001) Consumer behavior in web-based commerce: an empirical study. Int J Electron Comm 6(2):115–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kushwaha T, Shankar V (2007) Single channel vs. multichannel customers: Determinants and value to retailers. Working Paper, Texas A&M University, College Station

  • Kushwaha T, Shankar V (2013) Are multichannel customers really more valuable? The moderating role of product category characteristics. J Mark 77(4):67–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kwon KN, Jain D (2009) Multichannel shopping through nontraditional retail formats: variety-seeking behavior with hedonic and utilitarian motivations. J Mark Channels 16(2):149–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lichtenstein DR, Netemeyer RG, Burton S (1990) Distinguishing coupon proneness from value consciousness: an acquisition-transaction utility theory perspective. J Mark 54(3):54–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martos-Partal M, González-Benito Ó (2013) Studying motivations of store-loyal buyers across alternative measures of behavioural loyalty. Eur Manag J 31(4):348–358

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McGoldrick PJ, Collins N (2007) Multichannel retailing: profiling the multichannel shopper. Int Rev Retail Distrib Consum Res 17(2):139–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson P (1970) Information and consumer behavior. J Polit Econ 78(2):311–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson P (1974) Advertising as information. J Polit Econ 82(4):729–754

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ninth Decimal Survey (2014) The role of mobile in US consumers’ omnichannel-path to purchase

  • Noble SM, Griffith DA, Weinberger MG (2005) Consumer derived utilitarian value and channel utilization in a multi-channel retail context. J Bus Res 58(12):1643–1651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noble SM, Griffith DA, Adjei MT (2006) Drivers of local merchant loyalty: understanding the influence of gender and shopping motives. J Retail 82(3):177–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nunnally J (1978) Psychometric methods. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Oghuma AP, Chang Y, Libaque-Saenz CF, Park MC, Rho JJ (2015) Benefit-confirmation model for post-adoption behavior of mobile instant messaging applications: a comparative analysis of KakaoTalk and Joyn in Korea. Telecommun Policy 39(8):658–677

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okazaki S (2009) Social influence model and electronic word of mouth: pC versus mobile internet. Int J Advert 28(3):439–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oppewal H, Tojib DR, Louvieris P (2013) Experimental analysis of consumer channel-mix use. J Bus Res 66(11):2226–2233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ozok A, Wei J (2010) An empirical comparison of consumer usability preferences in online shopping using stationary and mobile devices: results from a college student population. Electron Commer Res 10(2):111–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Payne JW, Bettman JR, Johnson EJ (1988) Adaptive strategy selection in decision making. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 14(3):534–552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Persaud A, Azhar I (2012) Innovative mobile marketing via smartphones: are consumers ready? Market Intell Plan 30(4):418–443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson RA, Balasubramanian S, Bronnenberg BJ (1997) Exploring the implications of the Internet for consumer marketing. J Acad Mark Sci 25(4):329–346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pew Research Center (2016) Smartphone ownership and Internet usage continues to climb in emerging technologies

  • Piotrowicz W, Cuthbertson R (2014) Introduction to the special issue information technology in retail: toward omnichannel retailing. Int J Electron Comm 18(4):5–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rintamäki T, Kanto A, Kuusela H, Spence MT (2006) Decomposing the value of department store shopping into utilitarian, hedonic and social dimensions: evidence from Finaland. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 34(1):6–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rohm AJ, Swaminathan V (2004) A typology of online shoppers based on shopping motivations. J Bus Res 57(7):748–757

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruggiero TE (2000) Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Commun Soc 3(1):3–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schoenbachler DD, Gordon GL (2002) Multi-channel shopping: understanding what drives channel choice. J Consum Mark 19(1):42–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schramm-Klein H, Swoboda B, Morschett D (2007) Internet vs. brick-and-mortar stores: analysing the influence of shopping motives on retail channel choice among internet users. J Custom Behav 6(1):19–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schröder H, Zaharia S (2008) Linking multi-channel customer behavior with shopping motives: an empirical investigation of a German retailer. J Retail Consum Serv 15(6):452–468

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shankar V, O’Driscoll T, Reibstein D (2003) The wireless industry’s killer “B”. Strategy + Business, 31

  • Shankar V, Venkatesh A, Hofacker C, Naik P (2010) Mobile marketing in the retailing environment: current insights and future research avenues. J Interact Mark 24(2):111–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shim S, Eastlick MA, Lotz SL, Warrington P (2001) An online prepurchase intentions model: the role of intention to search. J Retail 77(3):397–416

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skallerud K, Korneliussen T, Olsen SO (2009) An examination of consumers’ cross-shopping behaviour. J Retail Consum Serv 16(3):181–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stone GP (1954) City shoppers and urban identification: observations on the social psychology of city life. Am J Sociol 60(1):36–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Statista (2013) Products researched online before purchasing in-store according to U.S. millennial internet users as of December 2013

  • Tauber EM (1972) Why do people shop? J Mark 36(4):46–49

    Google Scholar 

  • Tendai M, Crispen C (2009) In-store shopping environment and impulsive buying. Afr J Mark Manag 1(4):102–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas JS, Sullivan UY (2005) Managing marketing communications with multichannel customers. J Mark 69(4):239–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • To PL, Liao C, Lin TH (2007) Shopping motivations on Internet: a study based on utilitarian and hedonic value. Technovation 27(12):774–787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tsai TH, Tseng KC, Chang YS (2017) Testing the usability of smartphone surface gestures on different sizes of smartphones by different age groups of users. Comput Hum Behav 75:103–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verhoef PC, Neslin SA, Vroomen B (2007) Multichannel customer management: understanding the research-shopper phenomenon. Int J Res Mark 24(2):129–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson RT, Pitt LF, Berthon P, Zinkhan GM (2002) U-commerce: expanding the universe of marketing. J Acad Mark Sci 30(4):333–347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weathers D, Sharma S, Wood SL (2007) Effects of online communication practices on consumer perceptions of performance uncertainty for search and experience goods. J Retail 83(4):393–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weng M, Ding H (2012) E-shopping: an analysis of the uses and gratifications. Modern Appl Sci 6(5):48–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Westbrook RA, Black WC (1985) A motivation-based shopper typology. J Retail 61(1):78–103

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu C, Bastin M (2010) Hedonic shopping value and impulse buying behavior in transitional economies: a symbiosis in the Mainland China marketplace. J Brand Manag 18(2):105–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning), Korea, under the CPRC (Communication Policy Research Center) support program (IITP-2016-H8201-16-1003) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & Communication Technology Promotion).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christian Fernando Libaque-Saenz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, E., Libaque-Saenz, C.F. & Park, MC. Understanding shopping routes of offline purchasers: selection of search-channels (online vs. offline) and search-platforms (mobile vs. PC) based on product types. Serv Bus 13, 305–338 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11628-018-0384-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11628-018-0384-7

Keywords

  • Search channel choice
  • Webrooming
  • Mobile device
  • PCs
  • Product types