Cryopreserved storage of clonal germplasm in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System

Invited Review

Abstract

The US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) plant collections are a critical source of genetic diversity for breeding and selection of improved crops, including vegetatively propagated plants. Information on these collections is readily accessible to breeders and researchers on the internet from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). The clonal collections are at risk for loss due in part to their genetic diversity that makes growing them in one location a challenge, but also because it is difficult to have duplicate collections without incurring great expense. The development of cryopreservation techniques during the last two decades provides a low maintenance form of security backup for these collections. National plant collections for vegetatively propagated crop plants and their wild relatives are maintained by the USDA-ARS, NPGS at 15 sites across the country. These sites include various combinations of field, greenhouse, screenhouse, and in vitro collections. Cryopreserved backup collections in liquid nitrogen storage were instituted in the 1990s, increased greatly in the 2000s with the advent of new techniques, and are continuing today. Collections of dormant buds of temperate trees, shoot tips of in vitro cultures of many crops, and embryonic axes of some large seeded or recalcitrant seeded plants are all part of the clonal backup storage system.

Keywords

Cryopreservation Dormant buds Germplasm In vitro shoot tips 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project was funded by USDA-ARS CRIS project 5402-21000-007-00D at the Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation Unit, Fort Collins, CO and CRIS project 5358-21000-044-00D at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR.

Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture.

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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA-ARS Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation UnitFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm RepositoryCorvallisUSA

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