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Development of an efficient transient transformation protocol for avocado (Persea americana Mill.) embryogenic callus

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An efficient protocol for transient transformation of avocado embryogenic callus has been established, using the PDS-1000/He system and the reporter gus gene driven by the sunflower polyubiquitin promoter. Best physical parameters for transient transformation were 900 psi helium pressure and 6 cm target distance. The level of transient gus expression was slightly higher when the amount of DNA per shot was increased from 0.6 to 1.8 μg, but it was not significantly modified by the type of microprojectile used (tungsten vs. gold particles). The transient transformation assay developed in this research was used to test the strength of different promoters and the expression of fluorescent reporter genes. Four constitutive promoters, sunflower polyubiquitin, CaMV35S, CaMV35S with enhancer, and rice actin 1, as well as a trichome-specific promoter, ATP, were analyzed. Polyubiquitin and ATP promoters yielded the highest number of gus expressing foci, while no expression was detected with the Act1 promoter from rice. Embryogenic callus was also bombarded with plasmids pXK7S*NF2 and pXK7RNR2, harboring the enhanced green fluorescent gene, EGFP, and the red fluorescent gene DsRed, respectively. Both fluorescent proteins were detected 24 and 72 h after bombardment, but the observed transformation efficiency was slightly higher in GFP bombarded cells. The transient transformation system described here can be used as a fast way to select suitable promoters and/or fluorescent genes needed to undertake stable transformation studies in avocado using currently available protocols.

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This research was funded by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación of Spain and Feder European Union Funds (grant no. AGL2011-30354-C02-01). We thank Dr. L. Romero (Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Spain) and Dr. R. Wu (Cornell University, USA) for kindly providing the plasmids pATP and pAct1-F, respectively.

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Correspondence to Jose A. Mercado.

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Editor: J. Forster

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Chaparro-Pulido, C.A., Montiel, M.M., Palomo-Ríos, E. et al. Development of an efficient transient transformation protocol for avocado (Persea americana Mill.) embryogenic callus. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.-Plant 50, 292–298 (2014).

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