In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant

, Volume 49, Issue 6, pp 699–709 | Cite as

Mineral nutrition influences physiological responses of pear in vitro

  • Barbara M. Reed
  • Sugae Wada
  • Jeanine DeNoma
  • Randall P. Niedz


Abnormal physiological responses of plant cultures such as shoot tip necrosis, callus, and hyperhydricity are some of the most difficult challenges in shoot micropropagation, and their causes are not well understood. Five Murashige and Skoog mineral salt factors, which influence the growth of pear shoot cultures, were tested in a five-dimensional surface response experimental design. Pyrus communis ‘Old Home × Farmingdale 87,’ ‘Horner 51,’ and ‘Winter Nelis’; Pyrus dimorphophylla; and Pyrus ussuriensis ‘Hang Pa Li’ shoot cultures were grown on 43 computer-designed treatments to represent the design space of all possible treatment combinations. Analysis of shoot response to these treatments identified the factors that both contributed to physiological disorders and remedied them. Undesirable callus formation was common for pear shoots cultured on standard medium and decreased on formulations with increased NH4NO3, Fe, and mesos (CaCl2, KH2PO4, and MgSO4) for most genotypes. Shoot tip necrosis varied with the genotype, but low mesos or low nitrogen concentrations contributed to the necrosis. Hyperhydricity was more prominent with low mesos or low NH4NO3. Hooked and upwardly curled new leaves were seen in most genotypes and resulted from use of low mesos in P. communis and low nitrogen for ‘Hang Pa Li’ and P. dimorphophylla. Fasciation and hypertrophy were seen infrequently and resulted from wide imbalances in several nutrients simultaneously. In general, standard concentrations of Murashige and Skoog iron and micros combined with high mesos and moderate nitrogen compounds produced normal shoots without physiological disorders.


Mesos Micropropagation Mineral nutrition Nitrogen Pyrus 



We thank the NCGR lab personnel for assistance with the collection of data for this study. This project was funded by a grant from the Oregon Association of Nurseries and the Oregon Department of Agriculture, and by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, CRIS project 5358-21000-0-38-00D.


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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara M. Reed
    • 1
  • Sugae Wada
    • 2
  • Jeanine DeNoma
    • 1
  • Randall P. Niedz
    • 3
  1. 1.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceNational Clonal Germplasm RepositoryCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture, 4017 Agriculture and Life SciencesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Horticulture and Breeding Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceU.S. Horticultural Research LaboratoryFt. PierceUSA

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