Adventitious rooting of Jatropha curcas L. is stimulated by phloroglucinol and by red LED light

  • Norhayati Daud
  • Ahmad Faizal
  • Danny GeelenEmail author
Plant Tissue Culture


An efficient root induction system has been established for in vitro-regenerated Jatropha curcas L. shoots. Callus formation on shoots transferred to auxin containing medium was found to be a prominent and recurrent problem for rooting of in vitro-cultivated J. curcas. In particular, the type of auxins and cytokinins applied in the culture media were shown to strongly influence the severity of callus formation. Shoots cultivated on meta-methoxytopolin riboside (MemTR) were free of callus and produced elongated stems and well-developed leaves in comparison to the cytokinins benzyl adenine, zeatin, and thidiazuron. Subsequent root induction experiments were performed with shoots precultured on MemTR-containing medium. Shoots were excised and transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and α-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA). The induction of excessive callus formation was avoided only on IBA-containing medium. The optimum rooting medium with good root induction (35%) and 1.2 roots per shoot contained half-strength MS salts supplemented with 2.5 μM IBA. The same medium supplemented with 0.25% (w/v) activated charcoal produced 46% rooted shoots. Further improvement of rooting was obtained by transferring in vitro grown shoots to woody plant medium containing phloroglucinol (PG). In the presence of 2.5 μM IBA and 238 μM PG, 83% of the shoots rooted with on average 3.1 roots per shoot. We also analyzed the impact of light quality on the rooting capacity of Jatropha in vitro grown shoots. In general, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) light sources were less efficient for root induction. Red LED light provided the most favorable growth conditions, inducing a rooting response in 65% of the shoots, which produced on average 5.5 roots per shoot. These results indicate that adventitious rooting in J. curcas is under control of photoreceptors and that optimal rooting requires fine-tuning of the salt concentration, auxin, and cytokinin balance and application of synergistic compounds.


In vitro root induction Jatropha curcas Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) Phloroglucinol 



We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia through Sabbatical Leave Programme December 2011–August 2012 for N.D., and we thank the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia for A.F. pre-doctoral fellowship.


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© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and MathematicsSultan Idris Education UniversityTanjong MalimMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

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