In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 600–608 | Cite as

Food-grade sugar can promote differentiation in melon (Cucumis melo L.) tissue culture

  • Sebahattin Çürük
  • Selim Çetiner
  • Yeşim Yalçın-Mendi
  • Mira Carmeli-Weissberg
  • Ellen Graber
  • Victor Gaba
Developmental Biology/Morphogenesis


The objective of the present study was to investigate the origin of discrepancy between experimental results in in vitro culture of Turkish melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars, conducted by the same individual using the same protocol and same seed batches in two different laboratories. The difference in the sucrose source was found to be the major reason for the deviation in results between the two laboratories. The percentage of regenerating explants and the number of bud-like protuberances and/or shoots were significantly greater when a food-grade Turkish sucrose was used in the medium compared with analytical-grade sucrose. Media formulated with the food-grade sucrose regenerated 37 and 67 % more explants and bud-like protuberances and/or shoots per explant, respectively, than media containing analytical-grade sucrose. No meaningful differences were found in added elements or anions between the sucrose sources or by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The only significant chemical difference observed between the sucrose samples was the presence of melanoidins (Maillard reaction products) in the food-grade sucrose. The melanoidins were of high molecular weight (>3,000 Da determined by ultrafiltration), with characteristic ultraviolet–visible spectra and in vitro antioxidant activity. Melanoidin-containing sucrose can be differentiated by color and spectroscopy.


Sucrose quality Food-grade sucrose Bud regeneration Melon Cucumis melo 


  1. Amutha S, Muruganantham M, Ananthakrishnan G, Yablonsky S, Singer S, Gaba V (2009) Improved shoot regeneration due to prolonged seed storage. Sci Hort 119:117–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartlett MS (1936) The square root transformation in analysis of variance. J Royal Statist Soc Suppl 3:68–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartlett MS (1947) The use of transformations. Biometrics 3:39–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borrelli RC, Fogliano V, Monti SM, Ames JM (2002) Characterization of melanoidins from a glucose–glycine model system. Eur Food Res Technol 215:210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bosetto M, Arfaioli P, Ugolini FC, Degl’ Innocenti A, Agnelli E, Corti G (2006) Synthesis and characterization of Maillard compounds formed under sterile conditions on sand and silt-sized mineral substrates. Comm Soil Science Plant Anal 37:1043–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brands CMJ, Wedzicha BL, van Boekel MAJS (2002) Quantification of melanoidin concentration in sugar–casein systems. J Agric Food Chem 50:1178–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brudzynski K, Miotto D (2011) The recognition of high molecular weight melanoidins as the main components responsible for radical-scavenging capacity of unheated and heat-treated Canadian honeys. Food Chem 125:570–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canellas LP, Spaccini R, Piccolo A, Dobbss LB, Okorokova-Facanha AL, Santos GD, Olivares FL, Facanha AR (2009) Relationships between chemical characteristics and root growth promotion of humic acids isolated from Brazilian oxisols. Soil Sci 174:611–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Compton ME (1994) Statistical methods suitable for analysis of plant tissue culture data. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 37:217–242Google Scholar
  10. Çürük S, Çetiner S, Gaba V (2002) In vitro regeneration of some Turkish melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 16:39–46Google Scholar
  11. Dahleen LS, Bregitzer P (2002) An improved media system for high regeneration rates from barley immature embryo-derived callus cultures of commercial cultivars. Crop Sci 42:934–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Debeaujon I, Branchard M (1992) Introduction of somatic embryogenesis and caulogenesis from cotyledon and leaf protoplast-derived colonies of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Plant Cell Rep 12:37–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Bakry AA (2002) Effect of genotype, growth regulators, carbon source and pH on shoot induction and plant regeneration in tomato. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:501–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elena A, Diane L, Eva B, Marta F, Roberto B, Zamarreno AM, Garcia-Mina JM (2009) The root application of a purified leonardite humic acid modifies the transcriptional regulation of the main physiological root responses to Fe deficiency in Fe-sufficient cucumber plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:215–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Facanha AR, Facanha ALO, Olivares FL, Guridi F, Santos GD, Velloso ACX, Rumjanek VM, Brasil F, Schripsema J, Braz R, de Oliveira MA, Canellas LP (2002) Humic acids bioactivity: effects on root development and on the plasma membrane proton pump. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 37:1301–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fang G, Grumet R (1990) Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and regeneration of muskmelon plants. Plant Cell Rep 9:160–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaba V, Schlarman E, Elman C, Sagee O, Watad AA, Gray DJ (1999) In vitro studies on the anatomy and morphology of bud regeneration in melon cotyledons. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 35:1–7Google Scholar
  18. Grandison AS, Lewis MJ (1996) Separation processes in the food and biotechnology industries: principles and applications. Woodhead Publishing, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL (2005) The chemistry behind antioxidant assays. J Agric Food Chem 53:1841–1856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ikan R, Ioselis P, Rubinsztain Y, Aizenshtat Z, Frenkel M, Peters KE (1994) Pyrolysis of natural and synthetic humic substances. J Thermal Anal 42:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ikan R, Ioselis P, Rubinsztain Y, Aizenshtat Z, Pugmire R, Anderson LL (1986) Carbohydrate origin of humic substances. Naturwissensch 73:150–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ishiwatari R, Morinaga S, Yamamoto S, Machihara T, Rubinsztain Y, Ioselis P, Aizenshtat Z, Ikan R (1986) A study of formation mechanism of sedimentary humic substances. 1. Characterization of synthetic humic substances (melanoidins) by alkaline potassium permaganate oxidation. Organic Geochem 9:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lou H, Kako S (1994) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cucumber. Hortscience 29:906–909Google Scholar
  24. Maillard LC (1912) Formation of humus and combustible minerals without the influence of atmospheric oxygen, microorganisms, high temperatures or high pressure. C R Acad Sci 154:66–68Google Scholar
  25. Maillard LC (1917) General reaction between amino acids and sugars: the biological consequences. C R Soc Biol 72:599–601Google Scholar
  26. Meurer CA, Dinkins RD, Redmond CT, McAllister KP, Tucker DT, Walker DR, Parrott WA, Trick HN, Essig JS, Frantz HM, Finer JJ, Collins GB (2001) Embryogenic response of multiple soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars across three locations. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:62–67Google Scholar
  27. Morales FJ (2002) Application of capillary zone electrophoresis to the study of food and food-model melanoidins. Food Chem 76:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morales FJ, Jimenez-Perez S (2004) Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of melanoidins in aqueous systems. Eur Food Res Technol 218:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moreno V, Garcia-Sogo M, Granell I, Garcia-Sogo B, Roig LA (1985) Plant regeneration from calli of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. ‘Amarillo Oro’). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 5:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Muscolo A, Panuccio MR, Sidari M, Sessi E, Nardi S (2002) Alteration of amino acid metabolism by humic substances during germination of Pinus laricio seeds. Seed Sci Tech 30:205–210Google Scholar
  32. Nardi S, Panuccio MR, Abenavoli MR, Muscolo A (1994) Auxin-like effect of humic substances extracted from feces of Allolobophora caliginosa and A. rosea. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1341–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Niedz RP, Smith SS, Dunbar KB, Stephens CT, Murakishi HH (1989) Factors influencing shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Cucumis melo. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 18:313–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pinton R, Varanini Z, Vizzotto G, Maggioni A (1992) Soil humic substances affect transport-properties of tonoplast vesicles isolated from oat roots. Plant Soil 142:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Poonsapaya P, Nabors MV, Wright K, Vajrabhaya M (1989) A comparison of methods for callus culture and plant regeneration of RD25 rice (Oryza sativa L.) in two laboratories. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 16:175–186Google Scholar
  36. Rufian-Henares JA, de la Cueva SP (2009) Antimicrobial activity of coffee melanoidins—a study of their metal-chelating properties. J Agric Food Chem 57:432–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rufian-Henares JA, Morales FJ (2007) Antimicrobial activity of melanoidins. J Food Qual 30:160–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ruiz-Roca B, Navarro MP, Seiquer I (2008) Antioxidant properties and metal chelating activity of glucose-lysine heated mixtures: relationships with mineral absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Agric Food Chem 56:9056–9063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trevisan S, Pizzeghello D, Ruperti B, Francioso O, Sassi A, Palme K, Quaggiotti S, Nardi S (2011) Humic substances induce lateral root formation and expression of the early auxin-responsive IAA19 gene and DR5 synthetic element in Arabidopsis. Plant Biol 12:604–614Google Scholar
  40. Tyagi RK, Agrawal A, Mahalakshmi C, Hussain Z, Tyagi H (2007) Low-cost media for in vitro conservation of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and genetic stability assessment using RAPD markers. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 43:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vallés MP, Lasa JM (1994) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercial melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro). Plant Cell Rep 13:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vignoli JA, Bassoli DG, Benassi MT (2011) Antioxidant activity, polyphenols, caffeine and melanoidins in soluble coffee: the influence of processing conditions and raw material. Food Chem 124:863–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebahattin Çürük
    • 1
  • Selim Çetiner
    • 2
  • Yeşim Yalçın-Mendi
    • 3
  • Mira Carmeli-Weissberg
    • 4
  • Ellen Graber
    • 5
  • Victor Gaba
    • 6
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of HorticultureMustafa Kemal UniversityAntakyaTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesSabanci UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of HorticultureÇukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  4. 4.Institute of Plant SciencesARO Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  5. 5.Department of Soil Chemistry, Plant Nutrition and MicrobiologyARO Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  6. 6.Department of Plant PathologyARO Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael

Personalised recommendations