Advertisement

Conservation technologies for safeguarding and restoring threatened flora: case studies from Eastern Australia

  • Sarah E. AshmoreEmail author
  • Kim N. Hamilton
  • Catherine A. Offord
Invited Review

Abstract

This paper highlights recent advances and improved scientific understanding of conservation technologies through selected case studies on threatened plant species indigenous to Eastern Australia. This includes investigations into seed desiccation, storage responses and cryopreservation in rainforest species, particularly the socio-economically important Australian native Citrus spp., Davidsonia spp. (Davidson’s plum) and Syzygium spp. This work also (1) increases our understanding of ecological correlates of seed desiccation sensitivity for predictive use and (2) improves restoration practice through better understanding of seed storage and germination requirements. The use of in vitro conservation technologies in support of conservation actions for endangered species is outlined in case studies on Wollemia nobilis (Wollemi pine), epiphytic and terrestrial orchid species, and an endangered fern species.

Keywords

Rainforest seeds In vitro culture Cryopreservation Recalcitrant seeds Ex situ conservation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

CO and KH received support from the Royal Botanic Gardens Foundation (Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia) through generous donations to the Rainforest Seed Project by Allianz Pty Ltd., Tony Maxwell and Robyn Godlee as well as support from the Seed Quest NSW programme (Mount Annan Botanic Garden, Sydney, Australia), a partnership with the Millennium Seed Bank Project (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK). SA has received support through the Seeds for Life QLD programme, a partnership with the Millennium Seed Bank Project (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK). CO thanks Carolyn Porter and Joanne Tyler for laboratory support.

References

  1. Ahmed A. K.; Johnson K. A. Horticultural development of Australian native edible plants. Turner review no. 3. Aust J Bot 48: 417–426; 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altoveros N. C.; Ramanatha Rao R. Analysis of information on seed germplasm regeneration practices. In: Engels J. M. M.; Ramanatha Rao R. (eds) Regeneration of seed crops and their wild relatives. Proceedings of a Consultation Meeting, 4–7 December 1995, ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. IPGRI, Rome, pp 105–122; 1998.Google Scholar
  3. Ashmore S. E. Status report on the development and application of in vitro conservation and use of plant genetic resources. IPGRI, Rome; 1997.Google Scholar
  4. Ashmore S. E.; Drew R. A.; O’Brien C.; Parisi A. Cryopreservation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed: overcoming dormancy and optimizing seed desiccation and storage conditions. Acta Hortic 839: 229–235; 2009.Google Scholar
  5. Ashmore S. E.; Hamilton K. N.; Pritchard H. W. Development of conservation biotechnologies in response to target 8 of the GSPC. Proceedings of the Third Global Botanic Gardens Congress, Wuhan, China, April 2007, viewed 22 February 2010 <http://www.bgci.org/resources/wuhan>; 2007.
  6. Aitken-Christie J.; Platt G. C. Agathis australis: a new era for Kauri production. Comb Proc Int Plant Propag Soc 42: 321–326; 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Backhouse G. N. Are orchids safe down under? A national assessment of threatened orchids in Australia. Lankesteriana 7: 28–43; 2007.Google Scholar
  8. Bhatia P.; Bhatia N. P.; Ashwath N. In vitro propagation of Stackhousia tryonii Bailey (Stackhousiaceae): a rare and serpentine-endemic species of central Queensland, Australia. Biodivers Conserv 11: 1469–1477; 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bostock P. D.; Holland A. E. (eds). Census of the Queensland Flora 2007. Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane; 2007.Google Scholar
  10. Bullock S.; Summerell B. A.; Gunn L. V. Pathogens of the Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis). Australas Plant Pathol 29: 211–214; 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunn E.; Dixon K. W. Tissue culture of rare and endangered Australian plants. In: Taji A.; Williams R. (eds) Tissue culture of Australian plants. University of New England, Armidale, pp 157–179; 1996.Google Scholar
  12. Burrows G. E.; Doley D. D.; Haines R. J.; Nikles D. G. In vitro propagation of Araucaria cunninghamii and other species of the Araucariaceae via axillary meristems. Aust J Bot 36: 665–676; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butz M. National recovery plan for Tectaria devexa. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Cho E. G.; Normah M. N.; Kim H. H.; Rao V. R.; Engelmann F. Cryopreservation of Citrus aurantifolia seeds and embryonic axes using a desiccation protocol. Cryolett 23: 309–316; 2002.Google Scholar
  15. Chugh S.; Guha S.; Usha Rao I. Micropropagation of orchids: A review on the potential of different explants. Sci Hortic 122: 507–520; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crane J.; Kovach D.; Gardner C.; Walters C. Triacylglycerol phase and ‘intermediate’ seed storage physiology: a study of Cuphea carthagenensis. Planta 223: 1081–1089; 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daws M. I.; Garwood N. C.; Pritchard H. W. Prediction of desiccation sensitivity in seed of woody species: a probabilistic model based on two seed traits and 104 species. Ann Bot 97: 667–674; 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DEWHA (Australian Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts). Gondwana rainforests of Australia. Viewed 16 Jun 2010 http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/world/gondwana/index.html; 2007a.
  19. DEWHA (Australian Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts). Wet tropics of Queensland. Viewed 16 Jun 2010 http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/world/wet-tropics/index.html; 2007b.
  20. DEWHA (Australian Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts). Cumberland plain woodland. Viewed 16 Jun 2010 http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/cumberland.html; 2007c.
  21. Donovan N. J.; Offord C. A.; Tyler J. L. Vegetative cutting and in vitro propagation of the tree waratah, Alloxylon flammeum P. Weston and Crisp (family Proteaceae). Aust J Exp Agric 39: 225–229; 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Federici C. T.; Fang D. Q.; Scora R. W.; Roose M. L. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RADP analysis. Theor Appl Genet 96: 812–822; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org. Viewed 23 Feb 2010; 2005
  24. FAO-IPGRI. Genebank standards. Food and Agricultural Organisation of United Nations/IPGRI, Rome; 1994.Google Scholar
  25. Forster P. I. Rutaceae. In: Henderson R. J. F. (ed) Names and distributions of Queensland plants. Algae and lichens. Queensland Government Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, pp 177–181; 2002.Google Scholar
  26. Gmitter F. G.; Gmitter Jr. F. G.; Grosser J. W.; Moore G. A. Citrus. In: Hammerschlag F. A.; Litz R. E. (eds) Biotechnology of perennial fruit crops. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, pp 333–369; 1992.Google Scholar
  27. Grace L.; Cook J.; Hargreaves C.; Meagher P.; Menzies M.; Offord C.; Trueman S. Somatic embryogenesis in Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis), 16th Biennial Meeting of the New Zealand Branch of the International Association for Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, Christchurch; 2005.Google Scholar
  28. Hamilton K. N. Ex situ conservation of Australian Citrus species: investigations on seed biology, cryopreservation and in vitro culture. Ph.D. thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia; 2007.Google Scholar
  29. Hamilton K. N.; Ashmore S. E.; Drew R. A. Investigations on desiccation and freezing tolerance of Citrus australasica seed for ex situ conservation. In: Adkins S. W.; Ainsley P. J.; Bellairs S. M.; Coates D. J.; Bell L. C. (eds) Proceedings of the Fifth Australian Workshop on Native Seed Biology, Brisbane, 31–23 June 2004. ACMER, Brisbane, pp 157–161; 2005a.Google Scholar
  30. Hamilton K. N.; Ashmore S. E.; Drew R. A. Development of conservation strategies for Citrus species of importance to Australia. Acta Hortic 694: 111–115; 2005b.Google Scholar
  31. Hamilton K. N.; Ashmore S. E.; Drew R. A. Desiccation and cryopreservation tolerance of near mature seeds of Citrus garrawayi. Seed Sci Technol 36: 157–161; 2008.Google Scholar
  32. Hamilton K. N.; Ashmore S. E.; Drew R. A.; Pritchard H. W. Seed morphology and ultrastructure in Citrus garrawayi (Rutaceae) in relation to germinability. Aust J Bot 55: 618–627; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamilton K. N.; Ashmore S. E.; Pritchard H. W. Thermal analysis and cryopreservation of seeds of Australian wild Citrus species (Rutaceae): Citrus australasica, C. inodora and C. garrawayi. Cryolett 30: 268–279; 2009b.Google Scholar
  34. Hamilton K. N.; Turner S. R.; Ashmore S. E. Cryopreservation. In: Offord C. A.; Meagher P. F. (eds) Guidelines for Germplasm Conservation in Australia: Strategies and guidelines for developing, managing and utilising ex situ conservation collections. Australian Network for Plant Conservation Inc., Canberra; 2009a.Google Scholar
  35. Harden G. J. (ed). Flora of New South Wales, vol. 4. UNSW Press, Sydney; 1993.Google Scholar
  36. Harden J.; Williams J. B. A revision of Davidsoniae (Cunoniaceae). Telopea 8: 413–428; 2000.Google Scholar
  37. Hennessy K.; Fitzharris B.; Bates B. C.; Harvey N.; Howden S. M.; Hughes L.; Salinger J.; Warrick R. Australia and New Zealand. In: Parry M. L.; Canziani O. F.; Palutikof J. P.; van der Linden P. J.; Hanson C. E. (eds) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 507–540; 2007.Google Scholar
  38. Herrero R.; Asíns M. J.; Carbonell E. A.; Navarro L. Genetic diversity in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae. I Interspecies and intragenus genetic variability. Theor Appl Genet 92: 599–609; 1996a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Herrero R.; Asíns M. J.; Pina J. A.; Carbonell E. A.; Navarro L. Genetic diversity in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae. II Genetic relationships among genera and species. Theor Appl Genet 93: 1327–1334; 1996b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hong T. D.; Ellis R. H. Interspecific variation in seed storage behaviour within two genera—Coffea and Citrus. Seed Sci Technol 23: 165–181; 1995.Google Scholar
  41. Lambardi M.; De Carlo A.; Biricolti S.; Puglia A. M.; Lombardo G.; Siragusa M.; De Pasquale F. Zygotic and nucellar embryo survival following dehydration cryopreservation of Citrus intact seeds. Cryolett 25: 81–90; 2004.Google Scholar
  42. Li D. Z.; Pritchard H. W. The science and economics of ex situ plant conservation. Trends Plant Sci 14: 614–621; 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Low T. Wild food plants of Australia. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde; 1991.Google Scholar
  44. Mabberley D. J. Citrus (Rutaceae): A review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications. Blumea 49: 481–498; 2004.Google Scholar
  45. Mulwa R. M. S.; Bhalla P. L. In vitro plant regeneration from immature seed cotyledon explants of macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla L. Johnson). Plant Cell Rep 25: 1281–1286; 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murashige T.; Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15: 473–494; 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nand N.; Drew R. A.; Ashmore S. E. Micropropagation of two Australian native fruit species, Davidsonia pruriens (F. Muell.) and Davidsonia jerseyana (F. Muell. ex F.M. Bailey) G. Harden & J.B. Williams. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 77: 193–201; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nand N.; Drew R. A.; Ashmore S.; Peace C. P. Genetic diversity between three species of Davidsonia—the Australian native plum. Acta Hortic 694: 105–109; 2005.Google Scholar
  49. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Wollemia nobilis, Wollemi pine recovery plan. Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Hurstville, NSW, Australia. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/wollemia-nobilis.html. Viewed 23 Feb 2010; 2006.
  50. Offord C.; Bunn S.; Turner S.; Sommerville K. D.; Siemon J.; Ashmore S. E. Tissue culture. In: Offord C. A.; Meagher P. F. (eds) Guidelines for germplasm conservation in Australia: strategies and guidelines for developing, managing and utilising ex situ conservation collections. Australian Network for Plant Conservation Inc., Canberra; 2009.Google Scholar
  51. Offord C.; Meagher P. Wollemi pine: from the wild to the world. Chron Hortic 46: 10–13; 2006.Google Scholar
  52. Offord C.; Makinson R. Options and major considerations for plant germplasm conservation. In: Offord C. A.; Meagher P. F. (eds) Guidelines for germplasm conservation in Australia: Strategies and guidelines for developing, managing and utilising ex situ conservation collections. Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Canberra, pp 11–34; 2009.Google Scholar
  53. Offord C. A.; Meagher P. F. The effects of temperature, light and stratification on seed germination of Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis, Araucariaceae). Aust J Bot 49: 699–704; 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Offord C. A.; North T. G. Living plant collections. In: Offord C. A.; Meagher P. F. (eds) Plant germplasm conservation: strategies and guidelines for developing, managing and utilising ex situ collections. Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Canberra, pp 149–161; 2009.Google Scholar
  55. Offord C. A.; Porter C. L.; Meagher P. F.; Errington G. Sexual reproduction and early plant growth of the Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis), a rare and threatened Australian conifer. Ann Bot 84: 1–9; 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Offord C. A.; Tyler J. L. In vitro propagation of Pimelea spicata R.Br (Thymelaeaceae), an endangered species of the Sydney region, Australia. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 98: 19–23; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Peakall R.; Ebert D.; Scott L.; Meagher P.; Offord C. Comparative genetic study confirms exceptionally low genetic variation in the ancient and endangered relictual conifer, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Mol Ecol 12: 2331–2343; 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pritchard H. W.; Dickie J. B. Predicting seed longevity: use and abuse of seed viability equations. In: Smith R. D.; Linington S. H.; Pritchard H. W.; Probert R. J. (eds) Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 199–226; 2003.Google Scholar
  59. Pritchard H. W.; Wood C. B.; Hodges S.; Vautier H. J. 100-seed test for desiccation tolerance and germination: a case study on eight tropical palm species. Seed Sci Technol 32: 393–403; 2004.Google Scholar
  60. Plummer J. A.; de Fossard A. Influence of plant hormones and growth factors on the growth of Eriostemon australasius Pers. in tissue culture. Proc Int Plant Propagators Soc 31: 295–303; 1981.Google Scholar
  61. Reuther W. Genetic resources conservation of citrus species and near relatives from an international viewpoint. Proc Int Soc Citriculture 2: 604–606; 1977.Google Scholar
  62. Saamin S.; Ko W. W. Biodiversity and conservation of Citrus and its relatives in Malaysia and vicinity. Proc Int Soc Citriculture 2: 1221–1227; 1996.Google Scholar
  63. Sakai A.; Kobayashi S.; Oiyama I. Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) by vitrification. Plant Cell Rep 9: 30–33; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sharma B. D.; Hore D. K.; Gupta S. G. Genetic resources of Citrus of northern–eastern India and their potential use. Genet Resour Crop Evol 51: 411–418; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shatnawi M. A.; Johnson K. A.; Torpy F. R. In vitro propagation and cryostorage of Syzygium francisii (Myrtaceae) by the encapsulation–dehydration method. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 40: 403–407; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Skyes S. R. Australian native limes (Eremocitrus and Microcitrus): a citrus breeder’s viewpoint. Aust Bushfood Mag 3: 12–15; 1997.Google Scholar
  67. Sommerville K. D.; Siemon J. P.; Wood C. B.; Offord C. A. Simultaneous encapsulation of seed and mycorrhizal fungi for long-term storage and propagation of terrestrial orchids. Aust J Bot 56: 609–615; 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sommerville K. D.; Heslewood M. M.; Siemon J. P.; Offord C. A. Banking site soil for the germination of terrestrial orchid seed collections. Seed Sci Technol 37: 222–228; 2009.Google Scholar
  69. Swarts N. D.; Dixon K. W. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Ann Bot 104: 543–556; 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Taji A. M.; Williams R. (eds). Tissue culture of Australian plants. University of New England, Armidale; 1996.Google Scholar
  71. Trueman S. J.; Pegg G. S.; King J. Domestication for conservation of an endangered species: the case of the Wollemi pine. Tree For Sci 1: 1–10; 2007.Google Scholar
  72. White C. T. An Australian Citrus relative. Notes on the Russell River Lime. J Hered 13: 119–121; 1922.Google Scholar
  73. Wood C. B.; Pritchard H. W.; Amritphale D. Desiccation-induced dormancy in papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds is alleviated by heat shock. Seed Sci Res 10: 135–145; 2000a.Google Scholar
  74. Wood C. B.; Pritchard H. W.; Miller A. P. Simultaneous preservation of orchid seed and its fungal symbiont using encapsulation–dehydration is dependent on moisture content and storage temperature. Cryoletters 21: 125–136; 2000b.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah E. Ashmore
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kim N. Hamilton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Catherine A. Offord
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Futures CentreGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain TrustMount Annan Botanic GardenMount AnnanAustralia

Personalised recommendations