Plum shoot proliferation was investigated in terms of two distinct processes: axillary bud differentiation and axillary shoot development. Results showed that light quality influenced bud differentiation and interacted with apical dominance in determining shoot outgrowth, resulting in a differentiated structure of shoot clusters and type of branching. Results suggested that blue light, acting through its photoreceptor, increased the number of axillary buds differentiated from apical meristem, but did not remove the apical dominance. Red light removed apical dominance, while reducing the formation of axillary buds; both events appeared to be dependent on the putative amount of phytochrome active form, and independent of light photon fluence rate. On the contrary, blue light action appeared to be dependent on photon fluence rate. In addition, apparent blue-red interactions related to photomorphogenic events fit an antagonistic model for branching regulated by light via cryptochrome and phytochrome photoreceptors. Our results show that the dynamics of shoot cluster development is the product of two events: the formation of new axillary buds and their release from apical dominance.
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Muleo, R., Morini, S. & Casano, S. Photoregulation of growth and branching of plum shoots: Physiological action of two photosystems. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.-Plant 37, 609–617 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-001-0107-x