Effects of whole body vibration on outer hair cells’ hearing response to distortion product otoacoustic emissions
- 257 Downloads
Whole body vibration (WBV) is one of the most vexing problems in industries. There is a debate about the effect of WBV exposure on hearing system as vibration-induced hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate outer hair cells’ (OHCs’) hearing response hearing response to distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in rabbits exposed to WBV. It was hypothesized that the DPOAE response amplitudes (A dp) in rabbits exposed to WBV would be lower than those in control rabbits not exposed to WBV. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits as vibration group (n = 6, exposed to WBV in the z-axis at 4–8 Hz and 1.0 ms−2 root mean square for 8 h per day during five consecutive days) and NZW rabbits as control group (n = 6, not exposed to any WBV) were participated. A dp and noise floor levels (L nf) were examined on three occasions: day 0 (i.e., baseline), day 8 (i.e., immediately 1 h after exposure), and day 11 (i.e., 72 h following exposure) with f 2 frequencies ranging from 500 to 10,000 Hz and primaries L 1 and L 2 levels of 65 and 55 dB sound pressure level, respectively. Main effects were statistically found to be significant for group, time, and frequency (p < 0.05). DPOAE amplitudes were significantly larger for rabbits exposed to WBV, larger on day 8 and larger for mid to high f 2 frequencies (at and above 5,888.50 Hz). Main effects were not statistically found to be significant for ear (p > 0.05). Also, four statistically significant interactions including time by ear, time by frequency, group by frequency, and group by time were detected (p < 0.05). Contrary to the main hypothesis, DPOAE amplitudes were significantly larger for rabbits exposed to WBV. WBV exposure significantly led to enhanced mean A dp at mid to high frequencies rather than at low ones.
KeywordsWhole body vibration Vibration-induced hearing loss Distortion product otoacoustic emissions Outer hair cell function Audiology
We would like to thank Professor Richard D. Kopke from the Department of Defense Spatial Orientation Center, Department of Otolaryngology for helpful comments and discussion in the preliminary steps of starting this project. This study was supported by the Tarbiat Modares University.
- Anderson S. D.; Kemp D. T. The evoked cochlear mechanical response in laboratory primates. A preliminary report. Arch. Otolaryngol. 224: 47–54; 1979.Google Scholar
- Beranek L. L. Noise and vibration control. 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 56–89; 1971.Google Scholar
- European Commission Directorate General Employment. Guide to good practice on Whole-Body Vibration. Directive 2002/44/EC. VC/2004/0341. EU Good Practice Guide HAV. Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities; 2006.Google Scholar
- Griffin M. Handbook of human vibration. 1st ed. Elsevier, London, pp 103–109; 1990.Google Scholar
- Hamernik R. P.; Henderson D.; Coling D.; Salvi R. Influence of vibration on asymptotic threshold shift produced by impulse noise. Audiology 20: 259–269; 1981.Google Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Mechanical vibration and shock—evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration—part 1. General requirements. ISO 2631-1, 2nd ed. 1997-05-01 Author, Geneva; 1997: 12–23 pp.Google Scholar
- Janssen T.; Müller J. Otoacoustic emissions as a diagnostic tool in a clinical context. In: Manley G. A.; Fay R. R.; Popper A. N. (eds) Active processes and otoacoustic emissions in hearing. Springer, New York, pp 421–460; 2008.Google Scholar
- Kemp D. T. Otoacoustic emissions: concepts and origins. In: Manley G. A.; Fay R. R.; Popper A. N. (eds) Active processes and otoacoustic emissions in hearing. 1st ed. Springer, New York, pp 1–38; 2008.Google Scholar
- Lonsbury-Martin B. L.; Harris F. P.; Hawkins M. D.; Stagner B. B.; Martin G. K. Distortion product emissions in humans: I. Basic properties in normally hearing subjects. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Suppl. 236: 3–13; 1990.Google Scholar
- Lonsbury-Martin B. L.; Martin G. K. Otoacoustic emissions: basic studies in mammalian models. In: Manley G. A.; Fay R. R.; Popper A. N. (eds) Active processes and otoacoustic emissions in hearing. 1st ed. Springer, New York, pp 261–304; 2008.Google Scholar
- Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers (OHCOW). Whole-body vibration. OHCOW Inc., Ontario, pp 1–6; 2005.Google Scholar
- Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW). Public health service policy on humane care and use of laboratory animals (PHS Policy). National Institutes of Health. Department of Health and Human Services. RKL I, Suite 360, MSC 7982 6705. Rockledge Drive Bethesda, MD 20892-7982; 2002.Google Scholar
- Seidel H.; Harazin B.; Pavlas K.; Srokal C.; Richterl J.; Bliithnerl R.; Erdmannl U.; Grzesik J.; Hinz B.; Rothe R. Isolated and combined effects of prolonged exposures to noise and whole body vibration on hearing, vision and strain. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 61: 95–106; 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teschke K.; Nicol A. M.; Davies H.; Ju S. Whole body vibration and back disorders among motor vehicle drivers and heavy equipment operators: a review of the scientific evidence. Appeal Commissioner Workers’ Compensation Board of British Columbia, Vancouver; 1999.Google Scholar
- Texas Department of Insurance (TDI). Whole body vibration. Division of Workers’ Compensation (DWC), Safety Education and Training Programs, Resource Center offers a worker’ health and safety video tape library. HS97-106C (01–07). www.twcc.state.tx.us; 2011.
- Torvinen S. Effect of whole body vibration on muscular performance, balance, and bone. [Academic dissertation]. University of Tampere, Medical school, Department of surgery, UKK institute, Tampere, Finland; 2003.Google Scholar
- van den Brink G. Experiments in binaural diplacusis and tonal perception. In: Plomp R.; Smoorenburg G. F. (eds) Frequency analysis and periodicitiy detection in hearing. 1st ed. Sijthoff AW, Leiden, pp 362–374; 1970.Google Scholar